- Explain how technological innovations have empowered presidents.
- Identify ways in which presidents appeal to the public for approval.
- Explain how the role of first ladies changed over the course of the twentieth century.
With the advent of motion picture newsreels and voice recordings in the 1920s, presidents began to broadcast their message to the general public. Franklin Roosevelt, while not the first president to use the radio, adopted this technology to great effect. Over time, as radio gave way to newer and more powerful technologies like television, the Internet, and social media, other presidents have been able magnify their voices to an even-larger degree. Presidents now have far more tools at their disposal to shape public opinion and build support for policies. However, the choice to “go public” does not always lead to political success; it is difficult to convert popularity in public opinion polls into political power. Moreover, the modern era of information and social media empowers opponents at the same time that it provides opportunities for presidents.
The Shaping of the Modern Presidency
From the days of the early republic through the end of the nineteenth century, presidents were limited in the ways they could reach the public to convey their perspective and shape policy. Inaugural addresses and messages to Congress, while circulated in newspapers, proved clumsy devices to attract support, even when a president used plain, blunt language. Some presidents undertook tours of the nation, notably George Washington and Rutherford B. Hayes. Others promoted good relationships with newspaper editors and reporters, sometimes going so far as to sanction a pro-administration newspaper. One president, Ulysses S. Grant, cultivated political cartoonist Thomas Nast to present the president’s perspective in the pages of the magazine Harper’s Weekly. Abraham Lincoln experimented with public meetings recorded by newspaper reporters and public letters that would appear in the press, sometimes after being read at public gatherings. Most presidents gave speeches, although few proved to have much immediate impact, including Lincoln’s memorable Gettysburg Address.
Theodore Roosevelt came to the presidency in 1901, at a time when movie newsreels were becoming popular. Roosevelt, who had always excelled at cultivating good relationships with the print media, eagerly exploited this new opportunity as he took his case to the people with the concept of the presidency as bully pulpit, a platform from which to push his agenda to the public. The White House Press office was started. His successors followed suit, and they discovered and employed new ways of transmitting their message to the people in an effort to gain public support for policy initiatives. With the popularization of radio in the early twentieth century, it became possible to broadcast the president’s voice into many of the nation’s homes. Most famously, FDR used the radio to broadcast his thirty “fireside chats” to the nation between 1933 and 1944.
In the post–World War II era, television began to replace radio as the medium through which presidents reached the public. This technology enhanced the reach of the handsome young president John F. Kennedy and the trained actor Ronald Reagan. At the turn of the twenty-first century, the new technology was the Internet. The extent to which this mass media technology can enhance the power and reach of the president to impact public opinion has yet to be fully realized.
Going Public: Promise and Pitfalls
The concept of going public involves the president delivering a major television address in the hope that Americans watching the address will be compelled to contact their House and Senate member and that such public pressure will result in the legislators supporting the president on a major piece of legislation. Technological advances have made it more efficient for presidents to take their messages directly to the people than was the case before mass media. Presidential visits can build support for policy initiatives or serve political purposes, helping the president reward supporters, campaign for candidates, and seek reelection.
“Going public” is closely aligned with power to persuade as previously attributed to Richard Neustadt’s work on presidential power. Rather than bargaining solely with members of Congress alone, the president is essentially attempting to use his popularity to rally a broad coalition of supporters for some policy initiative. Public popularity is a resource of power for presidents, and they generally pay close attention to their public approval ratings. The concept, simply put, is that a more popular president is a more powerful president. Likewise, a president with a low popularity is assumed to have difficulty rallying even members of his own party in Congress to support policy initiatives.
Despite its pervasive use by recent presidents; it remains an open question, however, whether choosing to go public actually enhances a president’s political position in battles with Congress. Political scientist George C. Edwards goes so far as to argue that taking a president’s position public serves to polarize political debate, increase public opposition to the president, and complicate the chances to get something done. It replaces deliberation and compromise with confrontation and campaigning. Edwards believes the best way for presidents to achieve change is to keep issues private and negotiate resolutions that preclude partisan combat. Going public may be more effective in rallying supporters than in gaining additional support or changing minds.
Today, it is possible for the White House to take its case directly to the people via websites like White House Live, where the public can watch live press briefings and speeches.
The First Lady (First Gentleman?): The Changing Public Role
The president is not the only member of the First Family who can attempt to advance an agenda by going public. First ladies increasingly exploited the opportunity to gain public support for an issue of deep interest to them. Before 1933, most first ladies served as private political advisers to their husbands. In the 1910s, Edith Bolling Wilson took a more active but still private role assisting her husband, President Woodrow Wilson, afflicted by a stroke, in the last years of his presidency. The degree of public advocacy now varies by respective first ladies and the issues they choose to focus upon. It was Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s and 1940s who really opened the door for first ladies to move from a behind-the-scenes role to a more public and active role.
Eleanor Roosevelt took an active role in championing civil rights, becoming in some ways a bridge between her husband and the civil rights movement. She coordinated meetings between FDR and members of the NAACP, championed anti-lynching legislation, openly defied segregation laws, and pushed the Army Nurse Corps to allow black women in its ranks. She also wrote a newspaper column and had a weekly radio show. Lady Bird Johnson in the mid and late 1960s endorsed an effort to beautify public spaces and highways in the United States. She also established the foundations of what came to be known as the Office of the First Lady, complete with a news reporter, Liz Carpenter, as her press secretary.
Betty Ford took over as first lady in 1974 and became an avid advocate of women’s rights, proclaiming that she was pro-choice when it came to abortion and lobbying for the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).
The public role of the first lady reached a new level with Hillary Clinton in the 1990s when her husband put her in charge of his efforts to achieve health care reform, a controversial decision that did not meet with political success. Her successors, Laura Bush in the first decade of the twenty-first century and Michelle Obama in the second, returned to the roles played by predecessors in advocating less controversial policies: Laura Bush, a former librarian, advocated literacy and education; while Michelle Obama emphasized physical fitness and healthy diet and exercise. In a 2016 campaign appearance, Melania Trump spoke of the issue of cyber-bullying, especially among children.
The public and political profiles of first ladies remain high, and in the future, the president’s spouse will have the opportunity to use that unelected position to advance policies that might well be less controversial and more appealing than those pushed by the president.
Questions to Consider
- In what ways have first ladies expanded the role?
Show Answerby becoming more public and outspoken, by becoming more active and more engaged with the American people on selected and self-identified issues
- How were presidents in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries likely to reach the public? How did this change in the twentieth century? Has any thing changed in the early twenty-first century?
Show Answerprint media, letters, public appearances moving later to radio and television; followed by internet, social media, and instantly accessible forms of communication
Terms to Remember
bully pulpit–Theodore Roosevelt’s notion of the presidency as a platform from which the president could push an agenda
going public–a term for when the president delivers a major television address in the hope that public pressure will result in legislators supporting the president on a major piece of legislation
- Wendy Wick Reaves. 1987. "Thomas Nast and the President," American Art Journal 19, No. 1: 61–71. ↵
- For more information see Doris Kearns Goodwin's 2013 The Bully Pulpit by Simon and Schuster ↵
- Richard Fonte, Austin Community College ↵
- George C. Edwards. 2016. Predicting the Presidency: The Potential of Persuasive Leadership. Princeton: Princeton University Press; George C. Edwards and Stephen J. Wayne. 2003. Presidential Leadership: Politics and Policy Making. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. ↵