The lower limbs

Information

For anatomists, the lower limb consists of the thigh (the upper leg), the leg (the lower leg), and the foot. The thigh consists of a single bone, the femur. The leg consists of two long bones, the tibia and fibula, and the sesamoid bone, the patella, that serves as the knee cap. The foot consists of 26 bones, which are grouped into the tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges.

Figure 7-18. The bones of the left lower limb.

 

The major processes and markings of the femur, patella, and tibia & fibula bones are shown in Figures 7-19, 7-20, and 7-21, respectively. The interosseous membrane connecting the tibia and fibula bones is shown in Figure 7-22.

Figure 7-19. The left femur and its various processes and markings.

 

Figure 7-20. The Right patella.

 

Figure 7-21. The left tibia and femur and their various processes and markings.

 

Figure 7-22. The interosseous membrane of the left leg.

 

The bones of the foot are shown in Figure 7-23 below. The calcaneus is the heel bone, and the talus bone forms the ankle joint with the tibia and fibula. The calcaneus and tarsus are two of the seven tarsal bones that are posterior to the first long bones of the foot, the metatarsal bones. The bones of the toes are phalanges, the same name used for finger bones.

 

 

Figure 7-23. The bones of the left foot.

 

Lab 7 exercises 7.6

  1. Using one of the full skeletons in the room, fill out the tables below with three or four steps to determine whether each individual lower limb bone comes from the anatomical left or anatomical right.
  1. You can describe any features on that bone and which direction it has to face to allow you to determine whether that particular bone came from anatomical left or anatomical right.
  1. You don’t have to use anatomical jargon if you don’t want. Use terms which will make sense to you when you read it again. Use as many steps as you need, not necessarily four.
Femur – Anatomical left from anatomical right.
1.
2.
3.
4.

 

Tibia – Anatomical left from anatomical right.
1.
2.
3.
4.

 

Fibula – Anatomical left from anatomical right.
1.
2.
3.
4.

 

  1. Using one of the full skeletons again, fill out the tables below with three or four steps to determine how to distinguish the calcaneus bone from the talus bone.
  1. You don’t have to use anatomical jargon if you don’t want. Use terms which will make sense to you when you read it again. Use as many steps as you need, not necessarily three.
Calcaneus bone
1.
2.
3.

 

Talus bone
1.
2.
3.