The Sun and other stars cannot last forever. Eventually they will exhaust their nuclear fuel and cease to shine. But how do they change during their long lifetimes? And what do these changes mean for the future of Earth?
We now turn from the birth of stars to the rest of their life stories. This is not an easy task since stars live much longer than astronomers. Thus, we cannot hope to see the life story of any single star unfold before our eyes or telescopes. To learn about their lives, we must survey as many of the stellar inhabitants of the Galaxy as possible. With thoroughness and a little luck, we can catch at least a few of them in each stage of their lives. As you’ve learned, stars have many different characteristics, with the differences sometimes resulting from their different masses, temperatures, and luminosities, and at other times derived from changes that occur as they age. Through a combination of observation and theory, we can use these differences to piece together the life story of a star.