By the end of this section, you will be able to:
- Discuss the different types of law
- Discuss the different types of jurisdiction
Types of Law
There are two basic types of law in any legal system- Civil and Criminal. Below is a table differentiating the two:
Types of Jurisdictions
Every court system has jurisdiction over certain cases, from enforcing traffic laws to hearing capital murder charges. There are three types of jurisdictions:
- Original Jurisdiction– the court that gets to hear the case first. For example Municipal courts typically have original jurisdiction over traffic offenses the occur within city limits.
- Appellate Jurisdiction– the power for a higher court to review a lower courts decision. For example, the Texas Court of Appeals has appellate jurisdiction over the District Courts (See the hierarchy of Texas Court Structure in this Unit).
- Exclusive Jurisdiction– only that court can hear a specific case. For example only the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals Court can hear appeals for death penalty sentences.