Intro CJ Ch 2.5  Multiple Choice Questions (24)

  1. The act or process of restoring something to its original state of being.
  2. Specific Deterrence
  3. Rehabilitation
  4. Severity
  5. Drug Court

______________________refers to the uneven number of non-white youth who come into contact with the juvenile justice system, as well as the uneven number of people of color who come into contact with police.

  • Cesare Beccaria
  • Disproportionate Minority Contact
  • Multiracial
  • Rehabilitation

The belief that some races of people are better than other races.

  • Racism
  • Drug Court
  • Celerity
  • Individual Racism

A situation that occurs when one person is treated less favorably than another because of his or her race.

  • Drug Court
  • Incapacitation
  • General Deterrence
  • Racial Discrimination

Racism stemming from a person’s attitudes and beliefs about other races.

  • Cesare Beccaria
  • NAACP
  • Individual Racism
  • Racism

Constituting multiple racial groups.

  • Drug Court
  • Multiracial
  • Certainty
  • Deterrence

Constituting multiple ethnic groups.

  • Specific Deterrence
  • Drug Court
  • Multiethnic
  • Racism

A psychological state sufficient for a person to be worthy of blame for a criminal act, such as acting intentionally, knowingly, recklessly, or negligently.

  • Multiracial
  • Severity
  • Incapacitation
  • Culpable Mental State

The corrections goal of removing the ability of the offender to commit future crimes.

  • Rational Choice Theory
  • Incapacitation
  • Restitution
  • Individual Racism

Money paid to the victim of a crime as part of a criminal sanction.

  • Institutional Racism
  • Specific Deterrence
  • Restitution
  • Multiethnic

Swiftness of movement; As an element of rational choice theory, the term is used to indicate that punishment should administered swiftly to be effective.

  • Culpable Mental State
  • Recidivism
  • Certainty
  • Celerity

The systematic weighing positive consequences against negative consequences in decision making.

  • Specific Deterrence
  • Cost Benefit Analysis
  • General Deterrence
  • Institutional Racism

The perspective that people choose a particular course of action when they perceive that the benefits of the action outweigh the costs.

  • Culpable Mental State
  • Rational Choice Theory
  • Racial Discrimination
  • Incapacitation

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is an African-American civil rights organization founded in 1909.

  • Racial Discrimination
  • NAACP
  • Severity
  • Restitution

A type of deterrence based on the idea that the individual offender will be dissuaded from future criminality by experiencing punishment.

  • Celerity
  • Specific Deterrence
  • Rational Choice Theory
  • Cesare Beccaria

The idea that the punishment for a crime should be just severe enough to offset the benefit of committing it.

  • Certainty
  • Severity
  • Racism
  • Institutional Racism

A type of deterrence based on the premise that society in general will avoid crime because of the example of those that have been punished.

  • Fair Sentencing Act of 2010
  • Institutional Racism
  • Multiracial
  • General Deterrence

Racial inequalities that result from institutional policies and procedures.

  • Disproportionate Minority Contact
  • Incapacitation
  • Institutional Racism
  • Recidivism

A relapse into criminal behavior; an important measure of how good of a job probation, parole, and prison programs are doing at rehabilitating offenders.

  • Severity
  • Celerity
  • Multiethnic
  • Recidivism

In rational choice theories, used to indicate that punishments are only effective if criminals are relatively sure they will be punished.

  • Fair Sentencing Act of 2010
  • Certainty
  • Drug Court
  • Celerity

The idea that criminal punishments will prevent future crimes because the offenders have learned from their punishments, AND that society learns from the example of the punished.

  • Racial Discrimination
  • Specific Deterrence
  • Deterrence
  • General Deterrence

A law that reduced the disparity between sentences for possession and distribution of crack cocaine and powdered cocaine; many critics considered the disparity as racist.

  • Specific Deterrence
  • NAACP
  • Rehabilitation
  • Fair Sentencing Act of 2010

Specialized courts with jurisdiction over drug offenses and a focus on rehabilitation and treatment.

  • Celerity
  • Restitution
  • Drug Court
  • Individual Racism

18thC Italian philosopher that argued punishment should only be severe enough to offset the pleasure gained from committing the crime.

  • Rehabilitation
  • Cesare Beccaria
  • Certainty
  • Cost Benefit Analysis