A measurement is considered ______ if it actually measures what it is intended to measure, according to the topic of the study.

  • reliable
  • sociological
  • valid
  • quantitative

Sociological studies test relationships in which change in one ______ causes change in another.

  • test subject
  • behavior
  • variable
  • operational definition

In a study, a group of ten-year-old boys are fed doughnuts every morning for a week and then weighed to see how much weight they gained. Which factor is the dependent variable?

  • The doughnuts
  • The boys
  • The duration of a week
  • The weight gained

Which statement provides the best operational definition of “childhood obesity”?

  • Children who eat unhealthy foods and spend too much time watching television and playing video games
  • A distressing trend that can lead to health issues including type 2 diabetes and heart disease
  • Body weight at least 20 percent higher than a healthy weight for a child of that height
  • The tendency of children today to weigh more than children of earlier generations

Which materials are considered secondary data?

  • Photos and letters given to you by another person
  • Books and articles written by other authors about their studies
  • Information that you have gathered and now have included in your results
  • Responses from participants whom you both surveyed and interviewed

Why is choosing a random sample an effective way to select participants?

    • Participants do not know they are part of a study
    • The researcher has no control over who is in the study
    • It is larger than an ordinary sample
    • Everyone has the same chance of being part of the study

Which research approach is best suited to the scientific method?

    • Questionnaire
    • Case study
    • Ethnography
    • All of the above

The main difference between ethnography and other types of participant observation is:

  • ethnography isn’t based on hypothesis testing
  • ethnography subjects are unaware they’re being studied
  • ethnographic studies always involve minority ethnic groups
  • ethnography focuses on how subjects view themselves in relationship to the community

Which best describes the results of a case study?

    • It produces more reliable results than other methods because of its depth
    • Its results are not generally applicable
    • It relies solely on secondary data analysis
    • All of the above

Using secondary data is considered an unobtrusive or ________ research method.

    • nonreactive
    • nonparticipatory
    • nonrestrictive
    • nonconfrontive

To study the effects of fast food on lifestyle, health, and culture, from which group would a researcher ethically be unable to accept funding?

    • A fast-food restaurant
    • A nonprofit health organization
    • A private hospital
    • A governmental agency like Health and Social Services