Test Bank Questions

Chapter 7

  • Ally’s father was sent to prison when she was 12 for the trafficking of narcotics; her brother was arrested when she was 13 for possession of methamphetamines. By the age of 18, Ally has been arrested three times for possession of marijuana. Which theory best describes Ally’s experience?
    • Differential association theory*
    • Strain theory
    • Labeling theory
    • Opaque theory
  • A violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law
    • social control
    • immorality
    • deviance *
    • Sin
  • What is the difference between a violent crime and a hate crime?
    • A violent crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics.
    • A violent crime is punishable in a court of law; a hate crime is not.
    • A hate crime is punishable in a court of law; a violent crime is not.
    • A hate crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics.*
  • Jake receives a promotion at his law firm after winning an important case. This is an example of a:
    • Positive informal sanction
    • Negative informal sanction
    • Positive formal sanction*
    • Negative formal sanction
  • Which theorist studied the power elite, and the influence they had over society?
    • Karl Marx
    • Carl Sagan
    • Émile Durkheim
    • C. Wright Mills*
  • A behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions.
    • social control
    • immorality
    • crime *
    • Sin
  • Functionalist Émile Durkheim believed some deviance within society was:
    • Necessary; it challenged people’s views.*
    • Dangerous; it encouraged disruptive behavior.
    • Insignificant; deviance within society is largely ignored.
    • Instrumental; it encouraged the population to rebel.
  • Which of the following is not a branch of the U.S. Criminal Justice System?
    • The police
    • The jury* 
    • The courts
    • The corrections system
  • The term secondary deviance can be defined as:
    • When positive formal sanctions cause an individual to deviate from society’s expectations.
    • When a violation of norms does not result in any long-term effects on the individual’s self-image or interactions with others.
    • When negative informal sanctions encourage an individual to seek more positive behavioral choices.
    • When a person’s self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society.*
  • Which of the following is an example of a negative informal sanction?
    • Mario being sent to jail after robbing a CVS.
    • Beatrix being booed off stage after telling an offensive joke during her comedy routine.*
    • Eleanor being given a “Teacher of the Year” award for her work as a high school English teacher.
    • Meredith receiving compliments on her hair after visiting the salon.
  • The regulation and enforcement of norms
    • social control*
    • immorality
    • deviance
    • Sin
  • This theory addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals.
    • Strain theory*
    • Control theory
    • Differential association
    • Labeling theory
  • In first grade, Scott is unfairly singled out by his teacher for bad behavior, partly because his older brothers had behavioral problems themselves.  Throughout grade school, Scott gains a reputation as a “problem” child.  Scott eventually drops out of school, thinking he was born to fail anyway. Which school of thought best fits Scott’s experience?
    • Strain theory
    • Control theory
    • Differential association
    • Labeling theory*
  • Bernie Madoff, recently sentenced to 150 years in prison for creating a Ponzi scheme which caused clients to lose millions of dollars, engaged in which form of crime?
    • Street crime
    • Corporate crime*
    • Violent crime
    • Institutional crime
  • An average of _____ people in the United States fall victim to hate crimes each year?
    • 100,000
    • 150,000
    • 195,000*
    • 200,000