The process of protein synthesis is not as simple as stringing together amino acids to form a polypeptide. As shown below, this is a fairly involved process. DNA contains the genetic code that is used as a template to create mRNA in a process known as transcription. The mRNA then moves out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm where it serves as the template for translation, where tRNAs bring in individual amino acids that are bonded together to form a polypeptide.
Proteins, known as ribosomes, assist with translation. After translation, the polypeptide can be folded or gain structure as shown below and will be discussed in the next subsection (Protein Structure).
These videos do an excellent job of showing and explaining how protein synthesis occurs.
References & Links
Transcription – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5MfSYnItYvg
Translation – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dsTvBaUMvw