Gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources. Certain amino acids can be used for this process, which is the reason that this section is included here instead of the carbohydrate metabolism section. Gluconeogenesis is glycolysis in reverse with an oxaloacetate workaround, as shown below. Remember oxaloacetate is also an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.
Not all amino acids can be used for gluconeogenesis. The ones that can be used are termed glucogenic (red), and can be converted to either pyruvate or a citric acid cycle intermediate. Other amino acids can only be converted to either acetyl-CoA or acetoacetyl-CoA, which cannot be used for gluconeogenesis. However, acetyl-CoA or acetoacetyl-CoA can be used for ketogenesis to synthesize the ketone bodies, acetone and acetoacetate. Thus, these amino acids are instead termed ketogenic (green).
Fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids cannot be used to synthesize glucose. The transition reaction is a one-way reaction, meaning that acetyl-CoA cannot be converted back to pyruvate. As a result, fatty acids can’t be used to synthesize glucose, because beta-oxidation produces acetyl-CoA. Even if acetyl-CoA enters the citric acid cycle, the carbons from it will eventually be completely oxidized and given off as CO2. The net result is that these carbons are not readily available to serve as keto-acids or carbon skeletons for amino acid synthesis. Some amino acids can be either glucogenic or ketogenic, depending on how they are metabolized. These amino acids are referred to as glucogenic and ketogenic (pink).