Search Results for: angiosperm


    Angiosperm Flowers Flowers are modified leaves containing the reproductive organs of angiospems; their pollination is usually accomplished by animals or wind. Learning Objectives Describe the main parts of a flower and their purposes Key Takeaways Key Points Sepals, petals, carpels, and stamens are structures found in all flowers. To attract pollinators, petals usually exhibit vibrant Read more »

    Pollination and Fertilization

    Pollination and Fertilization Plants can transfer pollen through self-pollination; however, the preferred method is cross-pollination, which maintains genetic diversity. Learning Objectives Determine the differences between self-pollination and cross-pollination, and describe how plants have developed ways to avoid self-pollination Key Takeaways Key Points Pollination, the transfer of pollen from flower-to-flower in angiosperms or cone -to-cone in Read more »

    Plant Reproductive Development and Structure

    Plant Reproductive Development and Structure Plants have developed various strategies, both sexual and asexual, to ensure reproductive success. Learning Objectives Differentiate among the ways in which plants reproduce Key Takeaways Key Points Vegetative reproduction is a type of asexual reproduction that results in new plant individuals without seed or spore production. Vegetative reproduction is also Read more »

    Plant Development

    Meristems Plant meristematic tissues are cells that divide in order to give rise to various organs of the plant and keep the plant growing. Learning Objectives Discuss the attributes of meristem tissue and its role in plant development and growth Key Takeaways Key Points Mitotic cell division happens in plant meristems, which are composed of Read more »

    The Role of Seed Plants

    Herbivory and Pollination The diversity of plants can be attributed to pollination and herbivory, both examples of coevolution between animals and plants. Learning Objectives Describe the interaction of plants and animals in achieving pollination Key Takeaways Key Points Herbivory is believed to have been as much a driving force in the evolution of plant diversity Read more »


    Characteristics of Gymnosperms Gymnosperms are seed plants that have evolved cones to carry their reproductive structures. Learning Objectives Discuss the type of seeds produced by gymnosperms Key Takeaways Key Points Gymnosperms produce both male and female cones, each making the gametes needed for fertilization; this makes them heterosporous. Megaspores made in cones develop into the Read more »

    Evolution of Seed Plants

    The Evolution of Seed Plants and Adaptations for Land The evolution of seeds allowed plants to reproduce independently of water; pollen allows them to disperse their gametes great distances. Learning Objectives Recognize the significance of seed plant evolution Key Takeaways Key Points Plants are used for food, textiles, medicines, building materials, and many other products Read more »

    Early Plant Life

    Early Plant Life A diverse array of seedless plants still populate and thrive in the world today, particularly in moist environments. Learning Objectives Describe the pervasiveness of seedless plants during the history of the kingdom Plantae Key Takeaways Key Points Non-vascular seedless plants, or bryophytes, are the group of plants that are the closest extant Read more »