Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction

Male Hormones

The onset of puberty is controlled by two major hormones: FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH signals the release of testosterone.

Learning Objectives

Explain the function of male hormones in reproduction

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • The onset of puberty is signaled by high pulses of GnRH secreted by the hypothalamus; this in turn signals the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland.
  • FSH causes the Sertoli cells of the testes (which help nurse developing sperm cells) to begin the process of spermatogenesis in the testes.
  • LH triggers the production of testosterone from the Leydig cells of the testis; testosterone causes the development of secondary sex characteristics in the male.
  • As spermatogenesis and testosterone production increase, the Sertoli cells produce inhibin, which, together with rising levels of testosterone, inhibit the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland.

Key Terms

  • puberty: the age at which a person is first capable of sexual reproduction
  • Sertoli cell: a kind of sustentacular cell which serves as a “nurse” cell of the testes and which is part of a seminiferous tubule
  • Leydig cell: one of the interstitial cells, located next to the seminiferous tubules inside the testicle, that produce testosterone
  • follicle stimulating hormone: a gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone, secreted in the anterior pituitary, that stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in female mammals, and induces spermatogenesis in male mammals
  • luteinizing hormone: a hormone, produced by part of the pituitary gland, that stimulates ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum in female mammals, and the production of androgens by male mammals
  • inhibin: a peptide hormone, secreted by the gonads, which inhibits the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone
  • testosterone: steroid hormone produced primarily in the testes of the male; it is responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics in the male

Male Hormones

Puberty is a period of several years in which rapid physical growth and psychological changes occur, culminating in sexual maturity. The average onset of puberty is age 11 or 12 for boys. Some of the most significant parts of pubertal development involve distinctive physiological changes in individuals’ height, weight, body composition, and circulatory and respiratory systems. These changes are largely influenced by hormonal activity. Hormones play an organizational role, priming the body to behave in a certain way once puberty begins, and an activational role, referring to changes in hormones during adolescence that trigger behavioral and physical changes.

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Hormonal regulation of the male reproductive system: GnRH stimulates the production of FSH and LH, which act on the testes to begin spermatogenesis and to develop secondary sex characteristics in the male. In turn, the testes production of testosterone and the hormone inhibin inhibit the release of GnRH, FSH, and LH in a negative feedback loop.

At the onset of puberty, the hypothalamus begins secreting high pulses of GnRH, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In response, the pituitary gland releases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) into the male system for the first time. FSH enters the testes, stimulating the Sertoli cells, which help to nourish the sperm cells that the testes produce, to begin facilitating spermatogenesis. LH also enters the testes, stimulating the interstitial cells, called Leydig cells, to make and release testosterone into the testes and the blood.

Testosterone, the hormone responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics that develop in the male during adolescence, stimulates spermatogenesis, or the process of sperm production in the testes. Secondary sex characteristics include a deepening of the voice, the growth of facial, axillary, and pubic hair, and the beginnings of the sex drive.

A negative feedback system occurs in the male with rising levels of testosterone acting on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to inhibit the release of GnRH, FSH, and LH. The Sertoli cells produce the hormone inhibin, which is released into the blood when the sperm count is too high. This inhibits the release of GnRH and FSH, which will cause spermatogenesis to slow down. If the sperm count reaches 20 million/ml, the Sertoli cells cease the release of inhibin, allowing the sperm count to increase.

Female Hormones

The stages of the ovarian cycle in the female are regulated by hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and the ovaries.

Learning Objectives

Explain the function of female hormones in reproduction

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • As in males, GnRH secreted by the hypothalamus triggers the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary; however, in females, this signals the ovaries to produce estradiol and progesterone.
  • FSH stimulates the growth and maturation of follicles on the ovaries, which house and nourish the developing eggs; the follicle, in turn, releases inhibin, which inhibits the production of FSH.
  • Progesterone stimulates the growth of the endometrial lining of the uterus in order to prepare it for pregnancy; a strong surge of LH at around day 14 of the cycle triggers ovulation of an egg from the most mature follicle.
  • After ovulation, the ruptured follicle becomes a corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone to either regrow the uterine lining or to support the pregnancy if it occurs.
  • During middle age, a woman’s ovaries become less sensitive to FSH and LH and, therefore, cease to mature follicles and undergo ovulation; this is known as menopause.

Key Terms

  • corpus luteum: a yellow mass of cells that forms from an ovarian follicle during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in mammals; it secretes steroid hormones
  • menopause: the ending of menstruation; the time in a woman’s life when this happens
  • endometrium: the mucous membrane that lines the uterus in mammals and in which fertilized eggs are implanted
  • estradiol: a potent estrogenic hormone produced in the ovaries of all vertebrates; the synthetic compound is used medicinally to treat estrogen deficiency and breast cancer
  • menstruation: the periodic discharging of the menses, the flow of blood and cells from the lining of the uterus in females of humans and other primates

Female Hormones

The control of reproduction in females is more complex than that of the male. As with the male, the hypothalamic hormone GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) causes the release of the hormones FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) from the anterior pituitary. In addition, estrogens and progesterone are released from the developing follicles, which are structures on the ovaries that contain the maturing eggs.

In females, FSH stimulates the development of egg cells, called ova, which develop in structures called follicles. Follicle cells produce the hormone inhibin, which inhibits FSH production. LH also plays a role in the development of ova, as well as in the induction of ovulation and stimulation of estradiol and progesterone production by the ovaries. Estradiol and progesterone are steroid hormones that prepare the body for pregnancy. Estradiol is the reproductive hormone in females that assists in endometrial regrowth, ovulation, and calcium absorption; it is also responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics of females. These include breast development, flaring of the hips, and a shorter period necessary for bone maturation. Progesterone assists in endometrial re-growth and inhibition of FSH and LH release.

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Hormonal control of the female reproductive cycle: The ovarian and menstrual cycles of female reproduction are regulated by hormones produced by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries. The pattern of activation and inhibition of these hormones varies between phases of the reproductive cycle.

The Ovarian Cycle and the Menstrual Cycle

The ovarian cycle governs the preparation of endocrine tissues and release of eggs, while the menstrual cycle governs the preparation and maintenance of the uterine lining. These cycles occur concurrently and are coordinated over a 22–32 day cycle, with an average length of 28 days.

The first half of the ovarian cycle is the follicular phase. Slowly-rising levels of FSH and LH cause the growth of follicles on the surface of the ovary, which prepares the egg for ovulation. As the follicles grow, they begin releasing estrogens and a low level of progesterone. Progesterone maintains the endometrium, the lining of the uterus, to help ensure pregnancy. Just prior to the middle of the cycle (approximately day 14), the high level of estrogen causes FSH and, especially, LH to rise rapidly and then fall. The spike in LH causes ovulation: the most mature follicle ruptures and releases its egg. The follicles that did not rupture degenerate and their eggs are lost. The level of estrogen decreases when the extra follicles degenerate.

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Follicle: This mature egg follicle may rupture and release an egg in response to a surge of LH.

If pregnancy implantation does not occur, the lining of the uterus is sloughed off, a process known as menstruation. After about five days, estrogen levels rise and the menstrual cycle enters the proliferative phase. The endometrium begins to regrow, replacing the blood vessels and glands that deteriorated during the end of the last cycle.

Following ovulation, the ovarian cycle enters its luteal phase and the menstrual cycle enters its secretory phase, both of which run from about day 15 to 28. The luteal and secretory phases refer to changes in the ruptured follicle. The cells in the follicle undergo physical changes, producing a structure called a corpus luteum, which produces estrogen and progesterone. The progesterone facilitates the regrowth of the uterine lining and inhibits the release of further FSH and LH. The uterus is again being prepared to accept a fertilized egg, should it occur during this cycle. The inhibition of FSH and LH prevents any further eggs and follicles from developing. The level of estrogen produced by the corpus luteum increases to a steady level for the next few days.

If no fertilized egg is implanted into the uterus, the corpus luteum degenerates and the levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease. The endometrium begins to degenerate as the progesterone levels drop, initiating the next menstrual cycle. The decrease in progesterone also allows the hypothalamus to send GnRH to the anterior pituitary, releasing FSH and LH to start the cycles again.

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Stages of the menstrual cycle: Rising and falling hormone levels result in progression of the ovarian and menstrual cycles.

Menopause

As women approach their mid-40s to mid-50s, their ovaries begin to lose their sensitivity to FSH and LH. Menstrual periods become less frequent and finally cease; this process is known as menopause. There are still eggs and potential follicles on the ovaries, but without the stimulation of FSH and LH, they will not produce a viable egg to be released. The outcome of this is the inability to have children.

Various symptoms are associated with menopause, including hot flashes, heavy sweating, headaches, some hair loss, muscle pain, vaginal dryness, insomnia, depression, weight gain, and mood swings. Estrogen is involved in calcium metabolism and, without it, blood levels of calcium decrease. To replenish the blood, calcium is lost from bone, which may decrease the bone density and lead to osteoporosis. Supplementation of estrogen in the form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can prevent bone loss, but the therapy can have negative side effects, such as an increased risk of stroke or heart attack, blood clots, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, gall bladder disease, and, possibly, dementia.