Recruitment

Finding Good Candidates

It is beneficial to attract applicants with the highest potential for success at the organization.

Learning Objectives

Explain the different types of hiring concepts and placement classifications

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • Selective hiring helps prevent the costly turnover of staff and increases the likeliness of high employee morale and productivity.
  • The proper start to a recruitment effort is to perform a job analysis —to document the actual or intended requirement of the job to be performed. This information is captured in a job description and provides the recruitment effort with the boundaries and objectives of the search.
  • Job descriptions need to be reviewed or updated prior to a recruitment effort to reflect present day requirements. Each job description should be associated with a list of critical skills, behaviors or attitudes that will make or break the job performance.
  • When screening potential employees, managers need to select based on cultural fit and attitude as well as technical skills and competencies.

Key Terms

  • recruitment: Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, and selecting a qualified person for a job.
  • job analysis: Job analysis is the formal process of identifying the content of a job in terms of activities involved and attributes needed to perform the work.
  • job description: an outline of the description of the tasks and responsibilities in a post within an organization

In recruiting, it is beneficial to attract not only a large quantity of applicants but a group of individuals with the necessary skills and requirements for the position. After obtaining a large, qualified applicant base managers need to identify those applicants with the highest potential for success at the organization. According to Pfeffer and Veiga 1998, selecting the best person for the job is an extremely critical piece of the human resources inflow process. Selective hiring helps prevent the costly turnover of staff and increases the likeliness of high employee morale and productivity.

The proper start to a recruitment effort is to perform a job analysis, to document the actual or intended requirement of the job to be performed. This information is captured in a job description and provides the recruitment effort with the boundaries and objectives of the search. Often a company will have job descriptions that represent a historical collection of tasks performed in the past. These job descriptions need to be reviewed or updated prior to a recruitment effort to reflect present day requirements. Each job description should be associated with a list of critical skills, behaviors, or attitudes that will make or break the job performance. When screening potential employees, managers need to select based on cultural fit and attitude as well as technical skills and competencies. In recent years, the focus of hiring is increasingly shifted from solely the immediate hard skills such as engineering, finances, or accounting, to the longer term soft skills such as communication, team leadership, brand building.

There are some companies, such as Southwest Airlines, who hire primarily based on attitude because they espouse the philosophy that one must “hire for attitude and train for skill. ” According to former CEO Herb Kelleher, “We can change skill levels through training. We can’t change attitude” (O’Reilly & Pfeffer). After determining the most important qualifications, managers can design the rest of the selection process so that it is in alignment with the other human resource processes. Starting a recruitment with an accurate job analysis and job description ensures the recruitment process effort starts off on a proper track for success. This soft skills requirement is especially critical for multinationals, where expatriates, local employees, customers, and vendors would need to work together. To ease the situation, recruiters are beginning to adopt the IITTI (pronounced as “ET”) standardized image and etiquette certification tool to measure the background soft skills of job-seekers.

After the job analysis, the process moves onto sourcing, which involves 1) advertising, a common part of the recruiting process, often encompassing multiple media, such as the Internet, general newspapers, job ad newspapers, professional publications, window advertisements, job centers, and campus graduate recruitment programs; and 2) recruitment research, which is the proactive identification of passive candidates who are happy in their current positions and are not actively looking to move companies. This initial research for so-called passive candidates, also called name generation, results in a contact information of potential candidates who can then be contacted discreetly to be screened and approached on behalf of an executive search firm or corporate client.

Managers must strive to identify the best applicants at the lowest cost. Companies have a variety of processes available to screen potential employees, so managers must determine which system will generate the most accurate results. The methods of selection vary both in levels of effectiveness and in cost of application. In addition to biographical information, companies can conduct personal interviews, perform background checks, or request testing. Because of the costs associated with these measures, companies try to narrow down the number of applicants in each round of hiring. In some countries, such as the United States, the selection procedures are subject to Equal Employment Opportunity guidelines. Therefore, the companies also need to ensure that the process is accurate, with a high level of validity, reliable, and related to critical aspects of the job. Proactively taking these measures will help companies avoid litigation related to discrimination in the selection process.

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Recruitment: Recruitment for the Army

Selecting the right People

Having a common set of information about applicants allows hiring managers to avoid prejudices.

Learning Objectives

List the various interview styles used by employers to hire efficiently

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • Many companies choose to use several rounds of screening with different interviewers to discover additional facets of the applicant’s attitude or skill as well as develop a more well-rounded opinion of the applicant from diverse perspectives.
  • There are two common types of interviews: behavioral and situational.
  • The purpose of behavioral interviewing is to find links between the job’s requirement and how the applicant’s experience and past behaviors match those requirements.
  • A situational interview requires the applicant to explain how he or she would handle a series of hypothetical situations. Situational-based questions evaluate the applicant’s judgment, ability, and knowledge.

Key Terms

  • interview: A formal meeting, in person, for the assessment of a candidate or applicant.

Having a common set of information about the applicants upon which to compare after all the interviews have been conducted allows hiring managers to avoid prejudices. This also ensures that all interviewees are given a fair chance (Smith G.). Many companies choose to use several rounds of screening with different interviewers to discover additional facets of the applicant’s attitude or skill as well as develop a more well-rounded opinion of the applicant from diverse perspectives. Involving senior management in the interview process also acts as a signal to applicants about the company culture and value of each new hire. There are two common types of interviews: behavioral and situational.

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Online Recruiting: Monster.com is a popular job board for people seeking employment.

Behavioral Interview

In a behavioral interview, the interviewer asks the applicant to reflect on his or her past experiences (Janz, 1982). After deciding what skills are needed for the position, the interviewer will ask questions to find out if the candidate possesses these skills. The purpose of behavioral interviewing is to find links between the job’s requirement and how the applicant’s experience and past behaviors match those requirements. Examples of behavioral interview questions:

  • Describe a time when you were faced with a stressful situation.
  • How did you handle the situation?
  • Give me an example of when you showed initiative and assumed a leadership role.

Situational Interview

A situational interview requires the applicant to explain how he or she would handle a series of hypothetical situations. Situational-based questions evaluate the applicant’s judgment, ability, and knowledge (Latham & Saari, 1984). Before administering this type of interview, it is a good idea for the hiring manager to consider possible responses and develop a scoring key for evaluation purposes. Examples of situational interview questions:

  • You and a colleague are working on a project together; however, your colleague fails to do his agreed portion of the work. What would you do?
  • A client approaches you and claims that she has not received a payment that supposedly had been sent five days ago from your office. She is very angry. What would you do?

Selection Tests

When making a hiring decision, it is critical to understand the applicant’s personality style, values, and motivations (Smith G.). Technical aptitude is important, but attitude is often more important. The reality is that technical skills can be learned, but interpersonal work attitudes are usually more difficult to change (Schaefer). Behavioral assessments and personality profiles are a good way for hiring managers to learn how the individual will interact with their coworkers, customers, and supervisors (Smith G.). Tests such as the Myers Briggs and D.I.S.C profile assessments are popular tools that provide an accurate analysis of an applicant’s attitudes and interpersonal skills; however, it is critical that the tests are administered, scored, and interpreted by a licensed professional. Other selection tests used in hiring may include cognitive tests, which measure general intelligence, work sample tests that demonstrate the applicant’s ability to perform specific job duties, and integrity tests, which measure honesty (Kulik, 2004).

Background Checks

Background checks are a way for employers to verify the accuracy of information provided by applicants in resumes and applications. Information gathered in background checks may include employment history, education, credit reports, driving records, and criminal records. Employers must obtain written consent from the applicant before conducting a background check, and the information gathered in a background check should be relevant to the job.

Evaluation

Employers may choose to use just one or a combination of the screening methods to predict future job performance. It is important for companies to assess the effectiveness of their selective hiring process using metrics. This provides a benchmark for future performance as well as a means of evaluating the success of a particular method. Companies can continuously improve their selection practices to ensure a good fit for future employees that will successfully accomplish all that the job entails as well as fit into the organizational culture. If companies are not successful in their hiring practices, high turnover, low employee morale, and decreased productivity will result. Research shows that the “degree of cultural fit and value congruence between job applicants and their organizations significantly predicts both subsequent turnover and job performance” (Pfeffer & Viega, Putting People First for Organizational Success, 1998). Thus, companies need to assess their hiring in terms of technical success as well as cultural fit. Evaluating the hiring process will help ensure continuing success because human capital is often a company’s most important asset.