The Nucleus and Ribosomes
Found within eukaryotic cells, the nucleus contains the genetic material that determines the entire structure and function of that cell.
Explain the purpose of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells
- The nucleus contains the cell ‘s DNA and directs the synthesis of ribosomes and proteins.
- Found within the nucleoplasm, the nucleolus is a condensed region of chromatin where ribosome synthesis occurs.
- Chromatin consists of DNA wrapped around histone proteins and is stored within the nucleoplasm.
- Ribosomes are large complexes of protein and ribonucleic acid (RNA) responsible for protein synthesis when DNA from the nucleus is transcribed.
- histone: any of various simple water-soluble proteins that are rich in the basic amino acids lysine and arginine and are complexed with DNA in the nucleosomes of eukaryotic chromatin
- nucleolus: a conspicuous, rounded, non-membrane bound body within the nucleus of a cell
- chromatin: a complex of DNA, RNA, and proteins within the cell nucleus out of which chromosomes condense during cell division
One of the main differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is the nucleus. As previously discussed, prokaryotic cells lack an organized nucleus while eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound nuclei (and organelles ) that house the cell’s DNA and direct the synthesis of ribosomes and proteins.
The nucleus stores chromatin (DNA plus proteins) in a gel-like substance called the nucleoplasm. To understand chromatin, it is helpful to first consider chromosomes. Chromatin describes the material that makes up chromosomes, which are structures within the nucleus that are made up of DNA, the hereditary material. You may remember that in prokaryotes, DNA is organized into a single circular chromosome. In eukaryotes, chromosomes are linear structures. Every eukaryotic species has a specific number of chromosomes in the nuclei of its body’s cells. For example, in humans, the chromosome number is 46, while in fruit flies, it is eight. Chromosomes are only visible and distinguishable from one another when the cell is getting ready to divide. In order to organize the large amount of DNA within the nucleus, proteins called histones are attached to chromosomes; the DNA is wrapped around these histones to form a structure resembling beads on a string. These protein-chromosome complexes are called chromatin.
The nucleoplasm is also where we find the nucleolus. The nucleolus is a condensed region of chromatin where ribosome synthesis occurs. Ribosomes, large complexes of protein and ribonucleic acid (RNA), are the cellular organelles responsible for protein synthesis. They receive their “orders” for protein synthesis from the nucleus where the DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA travels to the ribosomes, which translate the code provided by the sequence of the nitrogenous bases in the mRNA into a specific order of amino acids in a protein.
Lastly, the boundary of the nucleus is called the nuclear envelope. It consists of two phospholipid bilayers: an outer membrane and an inner membrane. The nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum, while nuclear pores allow substances to enter and exit the nucleus.
Mitochondria are organelles that are responsible for making adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s main energy-carrying molecule.
Explain the role of the mitochondria.
- Mitochondria contain their own ribosomes and DNA; combined with their double membrane, these features suggest that they might have once been free-living prokaryotes that were engulfed by a larger cell.
- Mitochondria have an important role in cellular respiration through the production of ATP, using chemical energy found in glucose and other nutrients.
- Mitochondria are also responsible for generating clusters of iron and sulfur, which are important cofactors of many enzymes.
- alpha-proteobacteria: A taxonomic class within the phylum Proteobacteria — the phototropic proteobacteria.
- adenosine triphosphate: a multifunctional nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme, often called the “molecular unit of energy currency” in intracellular energy transfer
- cofactor: an inorganic molecule that is necessary for an enzyme to function
One of the major features distinguishing prokaryotes from eukaryotes is the presence of mitochondria. Mitochondria are double-membraned organelles that contain their own ribosomes and DNA. Each membrane is a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins. Eukaryotic cells may contain anywhere from one to several thousand mitochondria, depending on the cell’s level of energy consumption. Each mitochondrion measures 1 to 10 micrometers (or greater) in length and exists in the cell as an organelle that can be ovoid to worm-shaped to intricately branched.
Most mitochondria are surrounded by two membranes, which would result when one membrane-bound organism was engulfed into a vacuole by another membrane-bound organism. The mitochondrial inner membrane is extensive and involves substantial infoldings called cristae that resemble the textured, outer surface of alpha-proteobacteria. The matrix and inner membrane are rich with the enzymes necessary for aerobic respiration.
Mitochondria have their own (usually) circular DNA chromosome that is stabilized by attachments to the inner membrane and carries genes similar to genes expressed by alpha-proteobacteria. Mitochondria also have special ribosomes and transfer RNAs that resemble these components in prokaryotes. These features all support the hypothesis that mitochondria were once free-living prokaryotes.
Mitochondria are often called the “powerhouses” or “energy factories” of a cell because they are responsible for making adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s main energy-carrying molecule. ATP represents the short-term stored energy of the cell. Cellular respiration is the process of making ATP using the chemical energy found in glucose and other nutrients. In mitochondria, this process uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide as a waste product. In fact, the carbon dioxide that you exhale with every breath comes from the cellular reactions that produce carbon dioxide as a by-product.
It is important to point out that muscle cells have a very high concentration of mitochondria that produce ATP. Your muscle cells need a lot of energy to keep your body moving. When your cells don’t get enough oxygen, they do not make a lot of ATP. Instead, the small amount of ATP they make in the absence of oxygen is accompanied by the production of lactic acid.
In addition to the aerobic generation of ATP, mitochondria have several other metabolic functions. One of these functions is to generate clusters of iron and sulfur that are important cofactors of many enzymes. Such functions are often associated with the reduced mitochondrion-derived organelles of anaerobic eukaryotes.
Origins of Mitochondria
There are two hypotheses about the origin of mitochondria: endosymbiotic and autogenous, but the most accredited theory at present is endosymbiosis. The endosymbiotic hypothesis suggests mitochondria were originally prokaryotic cells, capable of implementing oxidative mechanisms. These prokaryotic cells may have been engulfed by a eukaryote and became endosymbionts living inside the eukaryote.
Comparing Plant and Animal Cells
Although they are both eukaryotic cells, there are unique structural differences between animal and plant cells.
Differentiate between the structures found in animal and plant cells
- Centrosomes and lysosomes are found in animal cells, but do not exist within plant cells.
- The lysosomes are the animal cell’s “garbage disposal”, while in plant cells the same function takes place in vacuoles.
- Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts and other specialized plastids, and a large central vacuole, which are not found within animal cells.
- The cell wall is a rigid covering that protects the cell, provides structural support, and gives shape to the cell.
- The chloroplasts, found in plant cells, contain a green pigment called chlorophyll, which captures the light energy that drives the reactions of plant photosynthesis.
- The central vacuole plays a key role in regulating a plant cell’s concentration of water in changing environmental conditions.
- protist: Any of the eukaryotic unicellular organisms including protozoans, slime molds and some algae; historically grouped into the kingdom Protoctista.
- autotroph: Any organism that can synthesize its food from inorganic substances, using heat or light as a source of energy
- heterotroph: an organism that requires an external supply of energy in the form of food, as it cannot synthesize its own
Animal Cells versus Plant Cells
Each eukaryotic cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, a nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and in some, vacuoles; however, there are some striking differences between animal and plant cells. While both animal and plant cells have microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs), animal cells also have centrioles associated with the MTOC: a complex called the centrosome. Animal cells each have a centrosome and lysosomes, whereas plant cells do not. Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts and other specialized plastids, and a large central vacuole, whereas animal cells do not.
The centrosome is a microtubule-organizing center found near the nuclei of animal cells. It contains a pair of centrioles, two structures that lie perpendicular to each other. Each centriole is a cylinder of nine triplets of microtubules. The centrosome (the organelle where all microtubules originate) replicates itself before a cell divides, and the centrioles appear to have some role in pulling the duplicated chromosomes to opposite ends of the dividing cell. However, the exact function of the centrioles in cell division isn’t clear, because cells that have had the centrosome removed can still divide; and plant cells, which lack centrosomes, are capable of cell division.
Animal cells have another set of organelles not found in plant cells: lysosomes. The lysosomes are the cell’s “garbage disposal.” In plant cells, the digestive processes take place in vacuoles. Enzymes within the lysosomes aid the breakdown of proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids, and even worn-out organelles. These enzymes are active at a much lower pH than that of the cytoplasm. Therefore, the pH within lysosomes is more acidic than the pH of the cytoplasm. Many reactions that take place in the cytoplasm could not occur at a low pH, so the advantage of compartmentalizing the eukaryotic cell into organelles is apparent.
The Cell Wall
The cell wall is a rigid covering that protects the cell, provides structural support, and gives shape to the cell. Fungal and protistan cells also have cell walls. While the chief component of prokaryotic cell walls is peptidoglycan, the major organic molecule in the plant cell wall is cellulose, a polysaccharide comprised of glucose units. When you bite into a raw vegetable, like celery, it crunches. That’s because you are tearing the rigid cell walls of the celery cells with your teeth.
Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes, but chloroplasts have an entirely different function. Chloroplasts are plant cell organelles that carry out photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the series of reactions that use carbon dioxide, water, and light energy to make glucose and oxygen. This is a major difference between plants and animals; plants (autotrophs) are able to make their own food, like sugars, while animals (heterotrophs) must ingest their food.
Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have outer and inner membranes, but within the space enclosed by a chloroplast’s inner membrane is a set of interconnected and stacked fluid-filled membrane sacs called thylakoids. Each stack of thylakoids is called a granum (plural = grana). The fluid enclosed by the inner membrane that surrounds the grana is called the stroma.
The chloroplasts contain a green pigment called chlorophyll, which captures the light energy that drives the reactions of photosynthesis. Like plant cells, photosynthetic protists also have chloroplasts. Some bacteria perform photosynthesis, but their chlorophyll is not relegated to an organelle.
The Central Vacuole
The central vacuole plays a key role in regulating the cell’s concentration of water in changing environmental conditions. When you forget to water a plant for a few days, it wilts. That’s because as the water concentration in the soil becomes lower than the water concentration in the plant, water moves out of the central vacuoles and cytoplasm. As the central vacuole shrinks, it leaves the cell wall unsupported. This loss of support to the cell walls of plant cells results in the wilted appearance of the plant. The central vacuole also supports the expansion of the cell. When the central vacuole holds more water, the cell gets larger without having to invest a lot of energy in synthesizing new cytoplasm.
The Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle that is responsible for the synthesis of lipids and the modification of proteins.
Describe the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum and its role in synthesis and metabolism
- If the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has ribosomes attached to it, it is called rough ER; if it does not, then it is called smooth ER.
- The proteins made by the rough endoplasmic reticulum are for use outside of the cell.
- Functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum include synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, and steroid hormones; detoxification of medications and poisons; and storage of calcium ions.
- lumen: The cavity or channel within a tube or tubular organ.
- reticulum: A network
The Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a series of interconnected membranous sacs and tubules that collectively modifies proteins and synthesizes lipids. However, these two functions are performed in separate areas of the ER: the rough ER and the smooth ER. The hollow portion of the ER tubules is called the lumen or cisternal space. The membrane of the ER, which is a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins, is continuous with the nuclear envelope.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is so named because the ribosomes attached to its cytoplasmic surface give it a studded appearance when viewed through an electron microscope. Ribosomes transfer their newly synthesized proteins into the lumen of the RER where they undergo structural modifications, such as folding or the acquisition of side chains. These modified proteins will be incorporated into cellular membranes—the membrane of the ER or those of other organelles —or secreted from the cell (such as protein hormones, enzymes ). The RER also makes phospholipids for cellular membranes. If the phospholipids or modified proteins are not destined to stay in the RER, they will reach their destinations via transport vesicles that bud from the RER’s membrane. Since the RER is engaged in modifying proteins (such as enzymes, for example) that will be secreted from the cell, the RER is abundant in cells that secrete proteins. This is the case with cells of the liver, for example.
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) is continuous with the RER but has few or no ribosomes on its cytoplasmic surface. Functions of the SER include synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, and steroid hormones; detoxification of medications and poisons; and storage of calcium ions. In muscle cells, a specialized SER called the sarcoplasmic reticulum is responsible for storage of the calcium ions that are needed to trigger the coordinated contractions of the muscle cells.
The Golgi Apparatus
The Golgi apparatus sorts and packages materials before they leave the cell to ensure they arrive at the proper destination.
Describe the structure of the Golgi apparatus and its role in protein modification and secretion
- The Golgi apparatus is a series of flattened sacs that sort and package cellular materials.
- The Golgi apparatus has a cis face on the ER side and a trans face opposite of the ER.
- The trans face secretes the materials into vesicles, which then fuse with the cell membrane for release from the cell.
- vesicle: A membrane-bound compartment found in a cell.
The Golgi Apparatus
We have already mentioned that vesicles can bud from the ER and transport their contents elsewhere, but where do the vesicles go? Before reaching their final destination, the lipids or proteins within the transport vesicles still need to be sorted, packaged, and tagged so that they wind up in the right place. Sorting, tagging, packaging, and distribution of lipids and proteins takes place in the Golgi apparatus (also called the Golgi body), a series of flattened membranes.
The receiving side of the Golgi apparatus is called the cis face. The opposite side is called the trans face. The transport vesicles that formed from the ER travel to the cis face, fuse with it, and empty their contents into the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. As the proteins and lipids travel through the Golgi, they undergo further modifications that allow them to be sorted. The most frequent modification is the addition of short chains of sugar molecules. These newly-modified proteins and lipids are then tagged with phosphate groups or other small molecules so that they can be routed to their proper destinations.
Finally, the modified and tagged proteins are packaged into secretory vesicles that bud from the trans face of the Golgi. While some of these vesicles deposit their contents into other parts of the cell where they will be used, other secretory vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents outside the cell.
In another example of form following function, cells that engage in a great deal of secretory activity (such as cells of the salivary glands that secrete digestive enzymes or cells of the immune system that secrete antibodies) have an abundance of Golgi. In plant cells, the Golgi apparatus has the additional role of synthesizing polysaccharides, some of which are incorporated into the cell wall and some of which are used in other parts of the cell.