Chicago/Turabian: Structure and Formatting of Specific Elements



Chicago/Turabian: Title Page

A paper in Chicago/Turabian style has a title page that follows specific formatting rules.

Learning Objectives

Arrange the title page correctly in a Chicago-style paper

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • Your title page should include the title of your paper, your name, the name of your course, and the date the paper is due.
  • All the information on your title page should be centered horizontally.
  • The title of your paper should be written in all capital letters.

Key Terms

  • dissertation: A formal research paper that students write in order to complete the requirements for a doctoral degree.

Title Page

The following information should be centered horizontally on the title page:

  1. a third of the way down the page, the title of your paper in all capital letters;
  2. on the next line, the subtitle of your paper (if you have one);
  3. two-thirds of the way down the page, your name;
  4. on the next line, the name of your course; and
  5. on the next line, the due date of the paper.

These elements should not be bolded, underlined, or italicized. Note that the requirements may be different for doctoral theses or dissertations.

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Chicago-style title page: A title page introduces the title of your paper—and you, its author!

Chicago/Turabian: Headings

In Chicago style, headings are used to organize your writing and give it a hierarchical organization.

Learning Objectives

Order headings correctly in Chicago/Turabian style

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • In Chicago style, headings are used to organize your writing and give it a hierarchical organization.
  • There can be up to five levels of headings in your paper. Some use title case; some use sentence case.

Key Terms

  • hierarchical: Arranged according to importance.

In Chicago style, headings are used to organize your writing and give it a hierarchical organization. Chicago style puts forth specific rules for formatting headings (up to five levels) within your paper:

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Chicago heading hierarchy: These are the formatting rules for different levels of headings in APA style.

If a heading is said to be in title case, that means you should format it as though it were the title of a book, with the first letters of most major words capitalized (e.g., A Study of Color-Blindness in Dogs).

If a heading is said to be in sentence case, that means you should format it as though it were a normal sentence, with only the first letter of the first word (and of any proper nouns) capitalized (e.g., A study of color-blindness in dogs).

You should always use heading levels in this order, beginning with Level 1. So, if you have a paper with two levels of headings, you would use Level 1 formatting for the higher level and Level 2 formatting for the lower level. Similarly, if you have a paper with five levels of headings, you would use Level 1 formatting for the highest level and Level 5 formatting for the lowest level.

Chicago/Turabian: Block Quotations

In Chicago style, format quotations of more than five lines as block quotations.

Learning Objectives

Recognize when to use block quotations in Chicago/Turabian

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • A typical quotation  is part of a sentence within a paragraph  in your paper; however, for longer quotations (more than five lines), format the excerpt as a block quotation.
  • A block quotation begins on its own line, is not enclosed in  quotation marks, and has its in-text  citation  after the final punctuation.
  • Block quotations are not double-spaced, unlike the rest of your Chicago style paper.

When to Use a Block Quotation

A typical quotation is enclosed in double quotation marks and is part of a sentence within a paragraph of your paper. However, if a quotation takes up more than five lines in your paper, you should format it as a block quotation rather than as a regular quotation within the text of a paragraph. Most of the standard rules for quotations still apply, with the following exceptions: a block quotation will begin on its own line (skip a line before and after the block quotation), it will not be enclosed in quotation marks, and its in-text citation will come after the ending punctuation, not before it.

For example, if you wanted to quote the first two sentences of Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense”, you would begin that quotation on its own line, indent every line, and format it as follows:

Perhaps the sentiments contained in the following pages, are not YET sufficiently fashionable to procure them general favour; a long habit of not thinking a thing wrong, gives it a superficial appearance of being right, and raises at first a formidable outcry in defense of custom. But the tumult soon subsides. (Paine)

The full reference for this source would then be included in your References section at the end of your paper.

Spacing and Alignment

Each line of the block quotation should be indented from the left margin the same distance as the first lines of your regular body paragraphs. Unlike the rest of your paper, it should be single-spaced. And as with series and lists, to better visually distinguish a block quotation from the surrounding text, be sure to leave an extra (blank) line between the last line of the block quotation and the first line of the following paragraph.

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Block quotations: This block quotation is correctly formatted according to Chicago/Turabian style.

Chicago/Turabian: Tables and Figures

Chicago/Turabian style has specific rules for formatting tables and figures.

Learning Objectives

Arrange tables and figures in Chicago style

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • Chicago/Turabian specifies two methods for presenting information visually: tables and figures.
  • A table is a chart that presents numerical information in a grid format.
  • A figure, by the Chicago/Turabian definition, is any visual that is not a table.
  • Using a table or a figure as a visual aid can help you strengthen a claim you’re making.

When you need to summarize quantitative data, words can only go so far. Sometimes, using a chart, graph, or other visual representation can be useful in proving your point. However, it’s important to make sure you incorporate this extra information in a way that is easy to understand and in line with the conventions set forth in Chicago/Turabian style.

Chicago/Turabian specifies two methods for representing information visually: tables and figures.

Tables

A table is a chart that presents numerical information in a grid format. In Chicago/Turabian style, you must present a table immediately following the paragraph in which you mentioned it. When you mention a table in the text of your paper, make sure you refer to it by its number (e.g., “Table 1”) rather than with a phrase like “the table below” or “this table.”

Formatting

Format your tables as simply as possible. Do not use bold or italicized text, and do not overuse borders. Generally, you should have only three horizontal lines in your table: one immediately above and one immediately below the column headings, and one at the bottom of the table, to help separate it from the surrounding text. However, Chicago style does allow two exceptions: you may use an additional horizontal line if (1) you need to separate added numbers from their total, or (2) if you have multiple levels of column headings within a table.

Title and Source

Every table should appear flush with the left margin. Immediately above the table, provide its number, followed by a colon, followed by a short but descriptive title:

  • Table 1: Frog populations in the Willamette River from 2009-2014

Immediately below the table, write the word “Source” (or or “Sources”) in italics, followed by a colon, and then provide the source(s) of the information in the table. Include the same information, with the same formatting, as in a parenthetical citation —i.e., the author ‘s last name and the page number. End this line with a period:

  • Source: Rottweiler 67.

Be sure to also include the full citation for this source in your References or Bibliography section. Neither the title nor the source line should be double-spaced.

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Sample table: This table is formatted correctly according to Chicago/Turabian formatting rules.

Figures

Treat a figure much as you would treat a table, with two exceptions: (1) you should present a figure immediately after you have referenced it in the text, and (2) all information about the figure, including its number (“Figure 1”) and title (“Frogs in the Willamette River, 2012”) should appear on the line immediately below the figure. The source information should appear on the next line.

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Sample figure: This figure is formatted correctly according to Chicago/Turabian formatting rules.