### Learning Objectives

By the end of this module, you will be able to:

- Write equations representing changes in concentration and pressure for chemical species in equilibrium systems
- Use algebra to perform various types of equilibrium calculations

We know that at equilibrium, the value of the reaction quotient of any reaction is equal to its equilibrium constant. Thus, we can use the mathematical expression for *Q* to determine a number of quantities associated with a reaction at equilibrium or approaching equilibrium. While we have learned to identify in which direction a reaction will shift to reach equilibrium, we want to extend that understanding to quantitative calculations. We do so by evaluating the ways that the concentrations of products and reactants change as a reaction approaches equilibrium, keeping in mind the stoichiometric ratios of the reaction. This algebraic approach to equilibrium calculations will be explored in this section.

Changes in concentrations or pressures of reactants and products occur as a reaction system approaches equilibrium. In this section we will see that we can relate these changes to each other using the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation describing the system. We use the decomposition of ammonia as an example.

On heating, ammonia reversibly decomposes into nitrogen and hydrogen according to this equation:

[latex]2{\text{NH}}_{3}\left(g\right){\rightleftharpoons}{\text{N}}_{2}\left(g\right)+3{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)[/latex]

If a sample of ammonia decomposes in a closed system and the concentration of N_{2} increases by 0.11 *M*, the change in the N_{2} concentration, Δ[N_{2}], the final concentration minus the initial concentration, is 0.11 *M*. The change is positive because the concentration of N_{2} increases.

The change in the H_{2} concentration, Δ[H_{2}], is also positive—the concentration of H_{2} increases as ammonia decomposes. The chemical equation tells us that the change in the concentration of H_{2} is three times the change in the concentration of N_{2}, because for each mole of N_{2} produced, 3 moles of H_{2} are produced.

[latex]\Delta\left[{\text{H}}_{2}\right]=3\times \Delta\left[{\text{N}}_{2}\right][/latex]

[latex]=3\times \left(0.11M\right)=0.33M[/latex]

The change in concentration of NH_{3}, Δ[NH_{3}], is twice that of Δ[N_{2}]; the equation indicates that 2 moles of NH_{3} must decompose for each mole of N_{2} formed. However, the change in the NH_{3} concentration is negative because the concentration of ammonia *decreases* as it decomposes.

[latex]\Delta\left[{\text{NH}}_{3}\right]=-2\times \Delta\left[{\text{N}}_{2}\right]=-2\times \left(0.11M\right)=-0.22M[/latex]

We can relate these relationships directly to the coefficients in the equation

[latex]\begin{array}{ccccc}{ }2\text{NH}_3\left(g\right)&\rightleftharpoons&\text{N}_2(g)&+&3\text{H}_2\left(g\right)\\ \Delta\left[\text{NH}_3\right]=-2\times\Delta\left[\text{N}_2\right]&{ }&\Delta\left[\text{N}_2\right]=0.11M&{ }&\Delta\left[\text{H}_2\right]=3\times\Delta\left[\text{N}_2\right]\end{array}[/latex]

Note that all the changes on one side of the arrows are of the same sign and that all the changes on the other side of the arrows are of the opposite sign.

If we did not know the magnitude of the change in the concentration of N_{2}, we could represent it by the symbol *x*.

[latex]\Delta\left[{\text{N}}_{2}\right]=x[/latex]

The changes in the other concentrations would then be represented as:

[latex]\Delta\left[{\text{H}}_{2}\right]=3\times \Delta\left[{\text{N}}_{2}\right]=3x[/latex]

[latex]\Delta\left[{\text{NH}}_{3}\right]=-2\times \Delta\left[{\text{N}}_{2}\right]=-2x[/latex]

The coefficients in the Δ terms are identical to those in the balanced equation for the reaction.

[latex]\begin{array}{ccccc}{ }2\text{NH}_3\left(g\right)&\rightleftharpoons&\text{N}_2(g)&+&3\text{H}_2\left(g\right)\\ -2x&{ }&x&{ }&3x\end{array}[/latex]

The simplest way for us to find the coefficients for the concentration changes in any reaction is to use the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation. The sign of the coefficient is positive when the concentration increases; it is negative when the concentration decreases.

### Example 1: Determining Relative Changes in Concentration

Complete the changes in concentrations for each of the following reactions.

- [latex]\begin{array}{ccccc}{\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{2}\text{(}g\text{)}&+\hfill & 2{\text{Br}}_{2}\text{(}g\text{)}\hfill & \rightleftharpoons& {\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{2}{\text{Br}}_{4}\text{(}g\text{)}\hfill \\ x\end{array}[/latex]
- [latex]\begin{array}{ccccc}{\text{I}}_{2}\text{(}aq\text{)}&+\hfill & {\text{I}}^{-}\text{(}aq\text{)}\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & {\text{I}}_{3}{}^{-}\text{(}aq\text{)}\hfill \\ & & & & x \end{array}[/latex]
- [latex]\begin{array}{cccccc}{\text{C}}_{3}{\text{H}}_{8}\text{(}g\text{)}&+\hfill & 5{\text{O}}_{2}\text{(}g\text{)}\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & 3{\text{CO}}_{2}\text{(}g\text{)}+\hfill & 4{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\text{(}g\text{)}\hfill \\ x \end{array}[/latex]

#### Check Your Learning

Complete the changes in concentrations for each of the following reactions:

- [latex]\begin{array}{ccccc}2{\text{SO}}_{2}\text{(}g\text{)}&+\hfill & {\text{O}}_{2}\text{(}g\text{)}\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & 2{\text{SO}}_{3}\text{(}g\text{)}\hfill \\ & & x & \hfill \end{array}[/latex]
- [latex]\begin{array}{ccc}{\text{C}}_{4}{\text{H}}_{8}\text{(}g\text{)}\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & 2{\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{4}\text{(}g\text{)}\hfill \\ & & -2x\hfill \end{array}[/latex]
- [latex]\begin{array}{ccccccc}4{\text{NH}}_{3}\text{(}g\text{)}&+\hfill & 7{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\text{(}g\text{)}\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & 4{\text{NO}}_{2}\text{(}g\text{)}&+\hfill & 6{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\text{(}g\text{)}\end{array}[/latex]

### Exercises

- A reaction is represented by this equation: [latex]\text{A}\left(aq\right)+2\text{B}\left(aq\right)\rightleftharpoons2\text{C}\left(aq\right){K}_{c}=1\times {10}^{3}[/latex]
- Write the mathematical expression for the equilibrium constant.
- Using concentrations ≤1
*M*, make up two sets of concentrations that describe a mixture of A, B, and C at equilibrium.

- A reaction is represented by this equation: [latex]2\text{W}\left(aq\right)\rightleftharpoons\text{X}\left(aq\right)+2\text{Y}\left(aq\right){K}_{c}=5\times {10}^{-4}[/latex]
- Write the mathematical expression for the equilibrium constant.
- Using concentrations of ≤1
*M*, make up two sets of concentrations that describe a mixture of W, X, and Y at equilibrium.

## Calculations Involving Equilibrium Concentrations

Because the value of the reaction quotient of any reaction at equilibrium is equal to its equilibrium constant, we can use the mathematical expression for *Q _{c}* (i.e.,

*the law of mass action*) to determine a number of quantities associated with a reaction at equilibrium. It may help if we keep in mind that

*Q*=

_{c}*K*(at equilibrium) in all of these situations and that there are only three basic types of calculations:

_{c}**Calculation of an equilibrium constant**. If concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium are known, the value of the equilibrium constant for the reaction can be calculated.**Calculation of missing equilibrium concentrations**. If the value of the equilibrium constant and all of the equilibrium concentrations, except one, are known, the remaining concentration can be calculated.**Calculation of equilibrium concentrations from initial concentrations**. If the value of the equilibrium constant and a set of concentrations of reactants and products that are not at equilibrium are known, the concentrations at equilibrium can be calculated.

A similar list could be generated using *Q _{P}*,

*K*, and partial pressure. We will look at solving each of these cases in sequence.

_{P}### Calculation of an Equilibrium Constant

Since the law of mass action is the only equation we have to describe the relationship between *K _{c}* and the concentrations of reactants and products, any problem that requires us to solve for

*K*must provide enough information to determine the reactant and product concentrations at equilibrium. Armed with the concentrations, we can solve the equation for

_{c}*K*, as it will be the only unknown.

_{c}Example 2 showed us how to determine the equilibrium constant of a reaction if we know the concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium. The following example shows how to use the stoichiometry of the reaction and a combination of initial concentrations and equilibrium concentrations to determine an equilibrium constant. This technique, commonly called an ICE chart—for **I**nitial, **C**hange, and **E**quilibrium—will be helpful in solving many equilibrium problems. A chart is generated beginning with the equilibrium reaction in question. Underneath the reaction the initial concentrations of the reactants and products are listed—these conditions are usually provided in the problem and we consider no shift toward equilibrium to have happened. The next row of data is the change that occurs as the system shifts toward equilibrium—do not forget to consider the reaction stoichiometry as described in a previous section of this chapter. The last row contains the concentrations once equilibrium has been reached.

### Example 2: Calculation of an Equilibrium Constant

Iodine molecules react reversibly with iodide ions to produce triiodide ions.

[latex]{\text{I}}_{2}\left(aq\right)+{\text{I}}^{-}\left(aq\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{I}}_{3}{}^{-}\left(aq\right)[/latex]

If a solution with the concentrations of I_{2} and I^{−} both equal to 1.000 × 10^{−3}*M* before reaction gives an equilibrium concentration of I_{2} of 6.61 × 10^{−4}*M*, what is the equilibrium constant for the reaction?

#### Check Your Learning

Ethanol and acetic acid react and form water and ethyl acetate, the solvent responsible for the odor of some nail polish removers.

[latex]{\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{5}\text{OH}+{\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CO}}_{2}\text{H}\rightleftharpoons{\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CO}}_{2}{\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{5}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}[/latex]

When 1 mol each of C_{2}H_{5}OH and CH_{3}CO_{2}H are allowed to react in 1 L of the solvent dioxane, equilibrium is established when [latex]\frac{1}{3}[/latex] mol of each of the reactants remains. Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction. (*Note:* Water is not a solvent in this reaction.)

### Exercises

- What is the value of the equilibrium constant at 500 °C for the formation of NH
_{3}according to the following equation? [latex]{\text{N}}_{2}\left(g\right)+3{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2{\text{NH}}_{3}\left(g\right)[/latex]

An equilibrium mixture of NH_{3}(*g*), H_{2}(*g*), and N_{2}(*g*) at 500 °C was found to contain 1.35*M*H_{2}, 1.15*M*N_{2}, and 4.12 × 10^{-1}*M*NH_{3}. - Hydrogen is prepared commercially by the reaction of methane and water vapor at elevated temperatures.

[latex]{\text{CH}}_{4}\left(g\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons3{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)+\text{CO}\left(g\right)[/latex]

What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction if a mixture at equilibrium contains gases with the following concentrations: CH_{4}, 0.126*M*; H_{2}O, 0.242*M*; CO, 0.126*M*; H_{2}1.15*M*, at a temperature of 760 °C? - A 0.72-mol sample of PCl
_{5}is put into a 1.00-L vessel and heated. At equilibrium, the vessel contains 0.40 mol of PCl_{3}(*g*) and 0.40 mol of Cl_{2}(*g*). Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for the decomposition of PCl_{5}to PCl_{3}and Cl_{2}at this temperature. - At 1 atm and 25 °C, NO
_{2}with an initial concentration of 1.00*M*is 3.3 × 10^{-3}% decomposed into NO and O_{2}. Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for the reaction

[latex]2{\text{NO}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2\text{NO}\left(g\right)+{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)[/latex] - Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant
*K*for the reaction [latex]2\text{NO}\left(g\right)+{\text{Cl}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2\text{NOCl}\left(g\right)[/latex] from these equilibrium pressures: NO, 0.050 atm; Cl_{P}_{2}, 0.30 atm; NOCl, 1.2 atm. - When heated, iodine vapor dissociates according to this equation: [latex]{\text{I}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2\text{I}\left(g\right)[/latex]

At 1274 K, a sample exhibits a partial pressure of I_{2}of 0.1122 atm and a partial pressure due to I atoms of 0.1378 atm. Determine the value of the equilibrium constant,*K*, for the decomposition at 1274 K._{P} - A sample of ammonium chloride was heated in a closed container: [latex]{\text{NH}}_{4}\text{Cl}\left(s\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{NH}}_{3}\left(g\right)+\text{HCl}\left(g\right)[/latex]

At equilibrium, the pressure of NH_{3}(*g*) was found to be 1.75 atm. What is the value of the equilibrium constant*K*for the decomposition at this temperature?_{P} - At a temperature of 60 °C, the vapor pressure of water is 0.196 atm. What is the value of the equilibrium constant
*K*for the transformation at 60 °C?_{P}

[latex]{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)[/latex]

### Calculation of a Missing Equilibrium Concentration

If we know the equilibrium constant for a reaction and know the concentrations at equilibrium of all reactants and products except one, we can calculate the missing concentration.

### Example 3: Calculation of a Missing Equilibrium Concentration

Nitrogen oxides are air pollutants produced by the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen at high temperatures. At 2000 °C, the value of the equilibrium constant for the reaction, [latex]{\text{N}}_{2}\left(g\right)+{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2\text{NO}\left(g\right)[/latex], is 4.1 × 10^{−4}. Find the concentration of NO(*g*) in an equilibrium mixture with air at 1 atm pressure at this temperature. In air, [N_{2}] = 0.036 mol/L and [O_{2}] 0.0089 mol/L.

#### Check Your Learning

The equilibrium constant for the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia at a certain temperature is 6.00 × 10^{−2}. Calculate the equilibrium concentration of ammonia if the equilibrium concentrations of nitrogen and hydrogen are 4.26 *M* and 2.09 *M*, respectively.

### Exercises

- Analysis of the gases in a sealed reaction vessel containing NH
_{3}, N_{2}, and H_{2}at equilibrium at 400 °C established the concentration of N_{2}to be 1.2*M*and the concentration of H_{2}to be 0.24*M*.

[latex]{\text{N}}_{2}\left(g\right)+3{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2{\text{NH}}_{3}\left(g\right){K}_{c}=0.50\text{ at }400^{\circ}\text{C}[/latex]

Calculate the equilibrium molar concentration of NH_{3}. - Carbon reacts with water vapor at elevated temperatures.

[latex]\text{C}\left(s\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons\text{CO}\left(g\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right){K}_{c}=0.2\text{ at }1000^{\circ}\text{C}[/latex]

What is the concentration of CO in an equilibrium mixture with [H_{2}O] = 0.500*M*at 1000 °C? - Cobalt metal can be prepared by reducing cobalt(II) oxide with carbon monoxide.

[latex]\text{CoO}\left(s\right)+\text{CO}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons\text{Co}\left(s\right)+{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right){K}_{c}=4.90\times {10}^{2}\text{ at }550^{\circ}\text{C}[/latex]

What concentration of CO remains in an equilibrium mixture with [CO_{2}] = 0.100*M*? - A student solved the following problem and found [N
_{2}O_{4}] = 0.16*M*at equilibrium. How could this student recognize that the answer was wrong without reworking the problem? The problem was: What is the equilibrium concentration of N_{2}O_{4}in a mixture formed from a sample of NO_{2}with a concentration of 0.10*M*?

[latex]2{\text{NO}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{N}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{4}\left(g\right){K}_{c}=160[/latex] - A student solved the following problem and found the equilibrium concentrations to be [SO
_{2}] = 0.590*M*, [O_{2}] = 0.0450*M*, and [SO_{3}] = 0.260*M*. How could this student check the work without reworking the problem? The problem was: For the following reaction at 600 °C:

[latex]2{\text{SO}}_{2}\left(g\right)+{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2{\text{SO}}_{3}\left(g\right){K}_{c}=4.32[/latex]

What are the equilibrium concentrations of all species in a mixture that was prepared with [SO_{3}] = 0.500*M*, [SO_{2}] = 0*M*, and [O_{2}] = 0.350*M*

### Calculation of Changes in Concentration

If we know the equilibrium constant for a reaction and a set of concentrations of reactants and products that are *not at equilibrium*, we can calculate the changes in concentrations as the system comes to equilibrium, as well as the new concentrations at equilibrium. The typical procedure can be summarized in four steps.

- Determine the direction the reaction proceeds to come to equilibrium.
- Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
- If the direction in which the reaction must proceed to reach equilibrium is not obvious, calculate
*Q*from the initial concentrations and compare to_{c}*K*to determine the direction of change._{c}

- Determine the relative changes needed to reach equilibrium, then write the equilibrium concentrations in terms of these changes.
- Define the changes in the initial concentrations that are needed for the reaction to reach equilibrium. Generally, we represent the smallest change with the symbol
*x*and express the other changes in terms of the smallest change. - Define missing equilibrium concentrations in terms of the initial concentrations and the changes in concentration determined in (a).

- Define the changes in the initial concentrations that are needed for the reaction to reach equilibrium. Generally, we represent the smallest change with the symbol
- Solve for the change and the equilibrium concentrations.
- Substitute the equilibrium concentrations into the expression for the equilibrium constant, solve for
*x*, and check any assumptions used to find*x*. - Calculate the equilibrium concentrations.

- Substitute the equilibrium concentrations into the expression for the equilibrium constant, solve for
- Check the arithmetic.
- Check the calculated equilibrium concentrations by substituting them into the equilibrium expression and determining whether they give the equilibrium constant.
- Sometimes a particular step may differ from problem to problem—it may be more complex in some problems and less complex in others. However, every calculation of equilibrium concentrations from a set of initial concentrations will involve these steps.
- In solving equilibrium problems that involve changes in concentration, sometimes it is convenient to set up an ICE table, as described in the previous section.

### Example 4: Calculation of Concentration Changes as a Reaction Goes to Equilibrium

Under certain conditions, the equilibrium constant for the decomposition of PCl_{5}(*g*) into PCl_{3}(*g*) and Cl_{2}(*g*) is 0.0211. What are the equilibrium concentrations of PCl_{5}, PCl_{3}, and Cl_{2} if the initial concentration of PCl_{5} was 1.00 *M*?

#### Check Your Learning

Acetic acid, CH_{3}CO_{2}H, reacts with ethanol, C_{2}H_{5}OH, to form water and ethyl acetate, CH_{3}CO_{2}C_{2}H_{5}.

[latex]{\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CO}}_{2}\text{H}+{\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{5}\text{OH}\rightleftharpoons{\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CO}}_{2}{\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{5}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}[/latex]

The equilibrium constant for this reaction with dioxane as a solvent is 4.0. What are the equilibrium concentrations when a mixture that is 0.15 *M* in CH_{3}CO_{2}H, 0.15 *M* in C_{2}H_{5}OH, 0.40 *M* in CH_{3}CO_{2}C_{2}H_{5}, and 0.40 *M* in H_{2}O are mixed in enough dioxane to make 1.0 L of solution?

#### Check Your Learning

A 1.00-L flask is filled with 1.00 moles of H_{2} and 2.00 moles of I_{2}. The value of the equilibrium constant for the reaction of hydrogen and iodine reacting to form hydrogen iodide is 50.5 under the given conditions. What are the equilibrium concentrations of H_{2}, I_{2}, and HI in moles/L?

[latex]{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)+{\text{I}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2\text{HI}\left(g\right)[/latex]

### Exercises

- Complete the changes in concentrations (or pressure, if requested) for each of the following reactions.
- [latex]\begin{array}{llll}2{\text{SO}}_{3}\left(g\right)\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & 2{\text{SO}}_{2}\left(g\right)+\hfill & {\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\hfill \\ \text{ }\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill & +x\hfill \\ \text{ }\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill & 0.125M\hfill \end{array}[/latex]
- [latex]\begin{array}{lllll}4{\text{NH}}_{3}\left(g\right)\hfill & +3{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & 2{\text{N}}_{2}\left(g\right)+\hfill & 6{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)\hfill \\ \text{ }\hfill & 3x\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill & \text{ }\hfill \\ \text{ }\hfill & 0.24M\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill & \text{ }\hfill \end{array}[/latex]
- Change in pressure:

[latex]\begin{array}{llll}2{\text{CH}}_{4}\left(g\right)\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & {\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)+\hfill & 3{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)\hfill \\ \text{ }\hfill & & x\hfill & \text{ }\hfill \\ \text{ }\hfill & & 25\text{torr}\hfill & \text{ }\hfill \end{array}[/latex] - Change in pressure:

[latex]\begin{array}{lllll}{\text{CH}}_{4}\left(g\right)+\hfill & {\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & \text{CO}\left(g\right)+\hfill & 3{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)\hfill \\ \text{ }\hfill & x\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill & \text{ }\hfill \\ \text{ }\hfill & 5\text{atm}\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill & \text{ }\hfill \end{array}[/latex] - [latex]\begin{array}{llll}{\text{NH}}_{4}\text{Cl}\left(s\right)\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & {\text{NH}}_{3}\left(g\right)+\hfill & \text{HCl}\left(g\right)\hfill \\ & & x\hfill & \text{ }\hfill \\ & & \hfill 1.03\times {10}^{-4}M\hfill & \text{ }\hfill \end{array}[/latex]
- change in pressure:

[latex]\begin{array}{cccc}\text{Ni}\left(s\right)+\hfill & 4\text{CO}\left(g\right)\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & \text{Ni}{\left(\text{CO}\right)}_{4}\left(g\right)\hfill \\ & 4x\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill \\ & \hfill 0.40\text{atm}\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill \end{array}[/latex]

- Complete the changes in concentrations (or pressure, if requested) for each of the following reactions.
- [latex]\begin{array}{cccc}2{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)+\hfill & {\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & 2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)\hfill \\ \text{ }\hfill & \text{ }\hfill & & +2x\hfill \\ \text{ }\hfill & \text{ }\hfill & & 1.50M\hfill \end{array}[/latex]
- [latex]\begin{array}{ccccc}{\text{CS}}_{2}\left(g\right)+\hfill & 4{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & {\text{CH}}_{4}\left(g\right)+\hfill & 2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{S}\left(g\right)\hfill \\ x\hfill & \text{ }\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill & \text{ }\hfill \\ 0.020M\hfill & \text{ }\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill & \text{ }\hfill \end{array}[/latex]
- Change in pressure:

[latex]\begin{array}{cccc}{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)+\hfill & {\text{Cl}}_{2}\left(g\right)\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & 2\text{HCl}\left(g\right)\hfill \\ x\hfill & \text{ }\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill \\ 1.50\text{atm}\hfill & \text{ }\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill \end{array}[/latex] - Change in pressure:

[latex]\begin{array}{ccccc}2{\text{NH}}_{3}\left(g\right)\hfill & +2{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & {\text{N}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)+\hfill & 3{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)\hfill \\ \text{ }\hfill & \text{ }\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill & x\hfill \\ \text{ }\hfill & \text{ }\hfill & & \text{ }\hfill & 60.6\text{torr}\hfill \end{array}[/latex] - [latex]\begin{array}{cccc}{\text{NH}}_{4}\text{HS}\left(s\right)\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & {\text{NH}}_{3}\left(g\right)+\hfill & {\text{H}}_{2}\text{S}\left(g\right)\hfill \\ & & x\hfill & \text{ }\hfill \\ & & 9.8\times {10}^{-6}M\hfill & \text{ }\hfill \end{array}[/latex]
- Change in pressure:

[latex]\begin{array}{cccc}\text{Fe}\left(s\right)+\hfill & 5\text{CO}\left(g\right)\hfill & \rightleftharpoons\hfill & \text{Fe}{\left(\text{CO}\right)}_{4}\left(g\right)\hfill \\ & \text{ }\hfill & & x\hfill \\ & \text{ }\hfill & & 0.012\text{atm}\hfill \end{array}[/latex]

- Why are there no changes specified for Ni in question 11 , part (f)? What property of Ni does change?
- Why are there no changes specified for NH
_{4}HS in question 12, part (e)? What property of NH_{4}HS does change?

### Exercises

- Assume that the change in concentration of N
_{2}O_{4}is small enough to be neglected in the following problem.- Calculate the equilibrium concentration of both species in 1.00 L of a solution prepared from 0.129 mol of N
_{2}O_{4}with chloroform as the solvent.

[latex]{\text{N}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{4}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2{\text{NO}}_{2}\left(g\right){K}_{c}=1.07\times {10}^{-5}[/latex] in chloroform - Show that the change is small enough to be neglected.

- Calculate the equilibrium concentration of both species in 1.00 L of a solution prepared from 0.129 mol of N
- Assume that the change in concentration of COCl
_{2}is small enough to be neglected in the following problem.- Calculate the equilibrium concentration of all species in an equilibrium mixture that results from the decomposition of COCl
_{2}with an initial concentration of 0.3166*M*.

[latex]{\text{COCl}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons\text{CO}\left(g\right)+{\text{Cl}}_{2}\left(g\right){K}_{c}=2.2\times {10}^{-10}[/latex] - Show that the change is small enough to be neglected.

- Calculate the equilibrium concentration of all species in an equilibrium mixture that results from the decomposition of COCl
- Assume that the change in pressure of H
_{2}S is small enough to be neglected in the following problem.- Calculate the equilibrium pressures of all species in an equilibrium mixture that results from the decomposition of H
_{2}S with an initial pressure of 0.824 atm.

[latex]2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{S}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)+{\text{S}}_{2}\left(g\right){K}_{P}=2.2\times {10}^{-6}[/latex] - Show that the change is small enough to be neglected.

- Calculate the equilibrium pressures of all species in an equilibrium mixture that results from the decomposition of H
- What are all concentrations after a mixture that contains [H
_{2}O] = 1.00*M*and [Cl_{2}O] = 1.00*M*comes to equilibrium at 25 °C?

[latex]{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)+{\text{Cl}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2\text{HOCl}\left(g\right){K}_{c}=0.0900[/latex] - What are the concentrations of PCl
_{5}, PCl_{3}, and Cl_{2}in an equilibrium mixture produced by the decomposition of a sample of pure PCl_{5}with [PCl_{5}] = 2.00*M*?

[latex]{\text{PCl}}_{5}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{PCl}}_{3}\left(g\right)+{\text{Cl}}_{2}\left(g\right){K}_{c}=0.0211[/latex]

### Key Concepts and Summary

The ratios of the rate of change in concentrations of a reaction are equal to the ratios of the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation. The sign of the coefficient of X is positive when the concentration increases and negative when it decreases. We learned to approach three basic types of equilibrium problems. When given the concentrations of the reactants and products at equilibrium, we can solve for the equilibrium constant; when given the equilibrium constant and some of the concentrations involved, we can solve for the missing concentrations; and when given the equilibrium constant and the initial concentrations, we can solve for the concentrations at equilibrium.

### Exercises

- Calculate the number of moles of HI that are at equilibrium with 1.25 mol of H
_{2}and 1.25 mol of I_{2}in a 5.00-L flask at 448 °C.

[latex]{\text{H}}_{2}+{\text{I}}_{2}\rightleftharpoons2\text{HI}{K}_{c}=50.2\text{ at }448^{\circ}\text{C}[/latex] - What is the pressure of BrCl in an equilibrium mixture of Cl
_{2}, Br_{2}, and BrCl if the pressure of Cl_{2}in the mixture is 0.115 atm and the pressure of Br_{2}in the mixture is 0.450 atm?

[latex]{\text{Cl}}_{2}\left(g\right)+{\text{Br}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2\text{BrCl}\left(g\right){K}_{P}=4.7\times {10}^{-2}[/latex] - What is the pressure of CO
_{2}in a mixture at equilibrium that contains 0.50 atm H_{2}, 2.0 atm of H_{2}O, and 1.0 atm of CO at 990 °C?

[latex]{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)+{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)+\text{CO}\left(g\right){K}_{P}=1.6\text{ at }990^{\circ}\text{C}[/latex] - Sodium sulfate 10-hydrate, Na
_{2}SO_{4}[latex]\cdot [/latex] 10H_{2}O, dehydrates according to the equation

[latex]{\text{Na}}_{2}{\text{SO}}_{4}\cdot 10{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(s\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{Na}}_{2}{\text{SO}}_{4}\left(s\right)+10{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right){K}_{P}=4.08\times {10}^{-25}\text{ at }25^{\circ}\text{C}[/latex]

What is the pressure of water vapor at equilibrium with a mixture of Na_{2}SO_{4}[latex]\cdot [/latex] 10H_{2}O and NaSO_{4}? - Calcium chloride 6-hydrate, CaCl
_{2}[latex]\cdot [/latex] 6H_{2}O, dehydrates according to the equation

[latex]{\text{CaCl}}_{2}\cdot 6{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(s\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{CaCl}}_{2}\left(s\right)+6{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right){K}_{P}=5.09\times {10}^{-44}\text{ at }25^{\circ}\text{C}[/latex]

What is the pressure of water vapor at equilibrium with a mixture of CaCl_{2}[latex]\cdot [/latex] 6H_{2}O and CaCl_{2}? - Calculate the pressures of all species at equilibrium in a mixture of NOCl, NO, and Cl
_{2}produced when a sample of NOCl with a pressure of 0.500 atm comes to equilibrium according to this reaction:

[latex]2\text{NOCl}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons 2\text{NO}\left(g\right)+{\text{Cl}}_{2}\left(g\right){K}_{P}=4.0\times {10}^{-4}[/latex] - Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of NO, O
_{2}, and NO_{2}in a mixture at 250 °C that results from the reaction of 0.20*M*NO and 0.10*M*O_{2}. (Hint:*K*is large; assume the reaction goes to completion then comes back to equilibrium.)

[latex]2\text{NO}\left(g\right)+{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2{\text{NO}}_{2}\left(g\right){K}_{c}=2.3\times {10}^{5}\text{ at }250^{\circ}\text{C}[/latex] - Calculate the equilibrium concentrations that result when 0.25
*M*O_{2}and 1.0*M*HCl react and come to equilibrium. (Hint:*K*is large; assume the reaction goes to completion, then comes back to equilibrium.)_{c}

[latex]4\text{HCl}\left(g\right)+{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2{\text{Cl}}_{2}\left(g\right)+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right){K}_{c}=3.1\times {10}^{13}[/latex] - One of the important reactions in the formation of smog is represented by the equation

[latex]{\text{O}}_{3}\left(g\right)+\text{NO}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{NO}}_{2}\left(g\right)+{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right){K}_{P}=6.0\times {10}^{34}[/latex]

What is the pressure of O_{3}remaining after a mixture of O_{3}with a pressure of 1.2 × 10^{-8}atm and NO with a pressure of 1.2 × 10^{-8}atm comes to equilibrium? (Hint:*K*is large; assume the reaction goes to completion then comes back to equilibrium.)_{P} - Calculate the pressures of NO, Cl
_{2}, and NOCl in an equilibrium mixture produced by the reaction of a starting mixture with 4.0 atm NO and 2.0 atm Cl_{2}. (Hint:*K*is small; assume the reverse reaction goes to completion then comes back to equilibrium.)_{P} - Calculate the number of grams of HI that are at equilibrium with 1.25 mol of H
_{2}and 63.5 g of iodine at 448 °C.

[latex]{\text{H}}_{2}+{\text{I}}_{2}\rightleftharpoons2\text{HI}{K}_{c}=50.2\text{ at }448^{\circ}\text{C}[/latex] - Butane exists as two isomers,
*n*-butane and isobutane.

*K*= 2.5 at 25 °CWhat is the pressure of isobutane in a container of the two isomers at equilibrium with a total pressure of 1.22 atm?_{P} - What is the minimum mass of CaCO
_{3}required to establish equilibrium at a certain temperature in a 6.50-L container if the equilibrium constant (*K*) is 0.050 for the decomposition reaction of CaCO_{c}_{3}at that temperature?

[latex]{\text{CaCO}}_{3}\left(s\right)\rightleftharpoons\text{CaO}\left(s\right)+{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)[/latex] - The equilibrium constant (
*K*) for this reaction is 1.60 at 990 °C: [latex]{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)+{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)+\text{CO}\left(g\right)[/latex]_{c}

Calculate the number of moles of each component in the final equilibrium mixture obtained from adding 1.00 mol of H_{2}, 2.00 mol of CO_{2}, 0.750 mol of H_{2}O, and 1.00 mol of CO to a 5.00-L container at 990 °C.

### Exercises

- At 25 °C and at 1 atm, the partial pressures in an equilibrium mixture of N
_{2}O_{4}and NO_{2}are [latex]{\text{P}}_{{\text{N}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{4}}=0.70\text{atm}[/latex] and [latex]{\text{P}}_{{\text{NO}}_{2}}=0.30\text{atm.}[/latex]- Predict how the pressures of NO
_{2}and N_{2}O_{4}will change if the total pressure increases to 9.0 atm. Will they increase, decrease, or remain the same? - Calculate the partial pressures of NO
_{2}and N_{2}O_{4}when they are at equilibrium at 9.0 atm and 25 °C.

- Predict how the pressures of NO
- In a 3.0-L vessel, the following equilibrium partial pressures are measured: N
_{2}, 190 torr; H_{2}, 317 torr; NH_{3}, 1.00 × 10^{3}torr: [latex]{\text{N}}_{2}\left(g\right)+3{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons2{\text{NH}}_{3}\left(g\right)[/latex]- How will the partial pressures of H
_{2}, N_{2}, and NH_{3}change if H_{2}is removed from the system? Will they increase, decrease, or remain the same? - Hydrogen is removed from the vessel until the partial pressure of nitrogen, at equilibrium, is 250 torr. Calculate the partial pressures of the other substances under the new conditions.

- How will the partial pressures of H
- The equilibrium constant (
*K*) for this reaction is 5.0 at a given temperature: [latex]\text{CO}\left(g\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)[/latex]_{c}- On analysis, an equilibrium mixture of the substances present at the given temperature was found to contain 0.20 mol of CO, 0.30 mol of water vapor, and 0.90 mol of H
_{2}in a liter. How many moles of CO_{2}were there in the equilibrium mixture? - Maintaining the same temperature, additional H
_{2}was added to the system, and some water vapor was removed by drying. A new equilibrium mixture was thereby established containing 0.40 mol of CO, 0.30 mol of water vapor, and 1.2 mol of H_{2}in a liter. How many moles of CO_{2}were in the new equilibrium mixture? Compare this with the quantity in part (a), and discuss whether the second value is reasonable. Explain how it is possible for the water vapor concentration to be the same in the two equilibrium solutions even though some vapor was removed before the second equilibrium was established.

- On analysis, an equilibrium mixture of the substances present at the given temperature was found to contain 0.20 mol of CO, 0.30 mol of water vapor, and 0.90 mol of H
- Antimony pentachloride decomposes according to this equation: [latex]{\text{SbCl}}_{5}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{SbCl}}_{3}\left(g\right)+{\text{Cl}}_{2}\left(g\right)[/latex]

An equilibrium mixture in a 5.00-L flask at 448 °C contains 3.85 g of SbCl_{5}, 9.14 g of SbCl_{3}, and 2.84 g of Cl_{2}. How many grams of each will be found if the mixture is transferred into a 2.00-L flask at the same temperature? - Consider the reaction between H
_{2}and O_{2}at 1000 K

[latex]2H_{2}(g)+O_{2}(g)\rightleftharpoons{2H_{2}O(g)}[/latex] [latex]K_{P}=\frac{(P_{H_{2}O})^{2}}{(P_{O_{2}})(P_{H_{2}})^{3}}=1.33\times{10^{20}}[/latex]

If 0.500 atm of H2 and 0.500 atm of O2 are allowed to come to equilibrium at this temperature, what are the partial pressures of the components? - An equilibrium is established according to the following equation

[latex]{\text{Hg}}_{2}{}^{2+}\left(aq\right)+{\text{NO}}_{3}{}^{-}\left(aq\right)+3{\text{H}}^{+}\left(aq\right)\rightleftharpoons2{\text{Hg}}^{2+}\left(aq\right)+{\text{HNO}}_{2}\left(aq\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right){K}_{c}=4.6[/latex]

What will happen in a solution that is 0.20*M*each in [latex]{\text{Hg}}_{2}{}^{2+}[/latex], [latex]{\text{NO}}_{3}{}^{-}[/latex], H^{+}, Hg^{2+}, and HNO_{2}?- [latex]{\text{Hg}}_{2}{}^{2+}[/latex] will be oxidized and [latex]{\text{NO}}_{3}{}^{-}[/latex] reduced.
- [latex]{\text{Hg}}_{2}{}^{2+}[/latex] will be reduced and [latex]{\text{NO}}_{3}{}^{-}[/latex] oxidized.
- Hg
^{2+}will be oxidized and HNO_{2}reduced. - Hg
^{2+}will be reduced and HNO_{2}oxidized. - There will be no change, because all reactants and products have an activity of 1.

- Consider the equilibrium: [latex]4{\text{NO}}_{2}\left(g\right)+6{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons4{\text{NH}}_{3}\left(g\right)+7{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)[/latex]
- What is the expression for the equilibrium constant (
*K*) of the reaction?_{c} - How must the concentration of NH
_{3}change to reach equilibrium if the reaction quotient is less than the equilibrium constant? - If the reaction were at equilibrium, how would a decrease in pressure (from an increase in the volume of the reaction vessel) affect the pressure of NO
_{2}? - If the change in the pressure of NO
_{2}is 28 torr as a mixture of the four gases reaches equilibrium, how much will the pressure of O_{2}change?

- What is the expression for the equilibrium constant (
- The binding of oxygen by hemoglobin (Hb), giving oxyhemoglobin (HbO
_{2}), is partially regulated by the concentration of H_{3}O^{+}and dissolved CO_{2}in the blood. Although the equilibrium is complicated, it can be summarized as

[latex]{\text{HbO}}_{2}\left(aq\right)+{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{+}\left(aq\right)+{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{CO}}_{2}-\text{Hb}-{\text{H}}^{+}+{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)[/latex]- Write the equilibrium constant expression for this reaction.
- Explain why the production of lactic acid and CO
_{2}in a muscle during exertion stimulates release of O_{2}from the oxyhemoglobin in the blood passing through the muscle.

- The hydrolysis of the sugar sucrose to the sugars glucose and fructose follows a first-order rate equation for the disappearance of sucrose.

[latex]{\text{C}}_{12}{\text{H}}_{22}{\text{O}}_{11}\left(aq\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)\rightarrow{\text{C}}_{6}{\text{H}}_{12}{\text{O}}_{6}\left(aq\right)+{\text{C}}_{6}{\text{H}}_{12}{\text{O}}_{6}\left(aq\right)[/latex]

Rate =*k*[C_{12}H_{22}O_{11}]

In neutral solution,*k*= 2.1 × 10^{-11}/s at 27 °C. (As indicated by the rate constant, this is a very slow reaction. In the human body, the rate of this reaction is sped up by a type of catalyst called an enzyme.) (Note: That is not a mistake in the equation—the products of the reaction, glucose and fructose, have the same molecular formulas, C_{6}H_{12}O_{6}, but differ in the arrangement of the atoms in their molecules). The equilibrium constant for the reaction is 1.36 × 10^{5}at 27 °C. What are the concentrations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose after a 0.150*M*aqueous solution of sucrose has reached equilibrium? Remember that the activity of a solvent (the effective concentration) is 1). - The density of trifluoroacetic acid vapor was determined at 118.1 °C and 468.5 torr, and found to be 2.784 g/L. Calculate
*K*for the association of the acid._{c}

- Liquid N
_{2}O_{3}is dark blue at low temperatures, but the color fades and becomes greenish at higher temperatures as the compound decomposes to NO and NO_{2}. At 25 °C, a value of*K*= 1.91 has been established for this decomposition. If 0.236 moles of N_{P}_{2}O_{3}are placed in a 1.52-L vessel at 25 °C, calculate the equilibrium partial pressures of N_{2}O_{3}(*g*), NO_{2}(*g*), and NO(*g*). - A 1.00-L vessel at 400 °C contains the following equilibrium concentrations: N
_{2}, 1.00*M*; H_{2}, 0.50*M*; and NH_{3}, 0.25*M*. How many moles of hydrogen must be removed from the vessel to increase the concentration of nitrogen to 1.1*M*? - A 0.010
*M*solution of the weak acid HA has an osmotic pressure (see chapter on solutions and colloids) of 0.293 atm at 25 °C. A 0.010*M*solution of the weak acid HB has an osmotic pressure of 0.345 atm under the same conditions.- Which acid has the larger equilibrium constant for ionization

HA [latex]\left[\text{HA}\left(aq\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{A}}^{-}\left(aq\right)+{\text{H}}^{+}\left(aq\right)\right][/latex] or HB [latex]\left[\text{HB}\left(aq\right)\rightleftharpoons{\text{H}}^{+}\left(aq\right)+{\text{B}}^{-}\left(aq\right)\right][/latex] ? - What are the equilibrium constants for the ionization of these acids?

(Hint: Remember that each solution contains three dissolved species: the weak acid (HA or HB), the conjugate base (A^{–}or B^{–}), and the hydrogen ion (H^{+}). Remember that osmotic pressure (like all colligative properties) is related to the total number of solute particles. Specifically for osmotic pressure, those concentrations are described by molarities.)

- Which acid has the larger equilibrium constant for ionization