Outline of Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
- Ionic Bonding
- Covalent Bonding
- Lewis Symbols and Structures
- Formal Charges and Resonance
- Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
- Molecular Structure and Polarity
It has long been known that pure carbon occurs in different forms (allotropes) including graphite and diamonds. But it was not until 1985 that a new form of carbon was recognized: buckminsterfullerene, commonly known as a “buckyball.” This molecule was named after the architect and inventor R. Buckminster Fuller (1895–1983), whose signature architectural design was the geodesic dome, characterized by a lattice shell structure supporting a spherical surface. Experimental evidence revealed the formula, C60, and then scientists determined how 60 carbon atoms could form one symmetric, stable molecule. They were guided by bonding theory – the topic of this module – which explains how individual atoms connect to form more complex structures.