Learning Outcomes

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The content, assignments, and assessments in Chemistry for Majors are aligned to the following learning outcomes. A full list of course learning outcomes can be viewed here: Chemistry for Majors Learning Outcomes.

Module 1: Essential Ideas

Utilize the essential concepts of chemistry that will serve as foundation blocks to learning chemical components and processes

  • Describe chemistry in context
  • Classify the properties of matter
  • Identify physical and chemical properties of matter
  • Report measurements properly
  • Measure uncertainty, accuracy, and precision
  • Apply dimensional analysis involving two or more properties

Module 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Understand fundamental chemical principles related to the composition of matter and the concept of molecular identity

  • Explain the postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory
  • Apply the results of early atomic experiments to define the three subatomic particles and isotopes
  • Interpret the atomic structure and determine atomic mass
  • Express chemical formulas in molecular, empirical, and structural form
  • Interpret the periodic table
  • Recognize and predict ionic and covalent compounds
  • Derive names for common types of inorganic compounds using a systematic approach

Module 3: Composition of Substances and Solutions

Make quantitative calculations and determinations about the composition of substances and mixtures

  • Relate formula mass, moles, and the numbers of atoms or molecules
  • Determine empirical and molecular formulas
  • Use molarity to calculate solution concentrations and perform dilution calculations
  • Calculate various units of solution concentrations

Module 4: Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions

Determine the quantitative connections between the amounts of substances involved in chemical reactions and symbolize with chemical equations

  • Write and balance chemical equations
  • Classify chemical reactions
  • Apply stoichiometry concepts to problems involving mass, moles, and solution molarity
  • Calculate theoretical and percent yield
  • Describe titrations and gravimetric data and apply stoichiometry to both

Module 5: Thermochemistry

Describe the relationships between chemical changes and thermal energy

  • Apply thermochemistry equations involving heat, specific heat, and temperature change
  • Use calorimetry data to solve problems
  • Describe and quantify enthalpy

Module 6: Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements

Identify forms of electromagnetic radiation and how they are related to the electronic structure of atoms

  • Interpret waves and the nature of light
  • Explain the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom
  • Apply quantum mechanics to the electrons in an atom
  • Predict electron configurations of atoms and the association to element classifications
  • Describe and explain the observed trends in atomic size, ionization energy, and electron affinity of the elements

Module 7: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry

Explain how individual atoms connect to form more complex structures

  • Express the electron structures of cations, anions, and ionic compounds
  • Define covalent bonds and electronegativity
  • Create Lewis symbols and structures
  • Quantify formal charges and resonance using the Lewis structure
  • Understand bond strength and lattice energies
  • Interpret VSEPR theory and polarity

Module 8: Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding

Understand valence bond theory, orbital hybridization, and molecular orbital theory in order to interpret unpredictable substance behaviors

  • Summarize valence bond theory
  • Describe atomic orbital hybridization
  • Describe multiple covalent bonding and resonance
  • Interpret the molecular orbital theory to determine bond orders and molecular electron configurations

Module 9: Gases

Explain the behaviors of gases by the relationships between gas temperature, pressure, amount, and volume

  • Define pressure and pressure units
  • Apply the ideal gas law
  • Use the ideal gas law and Dalton’s law to make calculations
  • Compute rates of effusion
  • Explain the postulates of the kinetic-molecular theory
  • Understand non-ideal gas behaviors and their association to van der Waals equation

Module 10: Liquids and Solids

Explain how the interactions of atoms and molecules affect various physical properties in the liquid and solid phases

  • Explain the types of intermolecular forces within a substance
  • Summarize the properties of a liquid
  • Understand the changes that occur at phase transition temperatures
  • Interpret phase diagrams
  • Describe the properties and bonding of the main types of crystalline solids
  • Analyze crystalline structures

Module 11: Solutions and Colloids

Describe the properties and formation of solutions and colloids

  • Determine if and how a solution will form
  • Describe the physical and chemical changes that accompany the dissolution of electrolytes
  • Examine the effects of various conditions on solubility
  • Explain colligative properties and the processes of distillation and osmosis
  • Describe the properties and applications of colloids

Module 12: Kinetics

Understand the factors that influence chemical reaction rates, reaction mechanisms, and the quantitative techniques used to describe those rates

  • Interpret chemical reaction rate expressions
  • Describe the factors that affect reaction rates
  • Apply rate laws
  • Make integrated rate law calculations
  • State the postulates of collision theory and their relationship to activation energy and transition states
  • Explain the rate law for a given reaction mechanism
  • Understand how catalysts function

Module 13: Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts

Identify the essential aspects of chemical equilibria and analyze a stressed equilibrium system

  • Describe equilibrium systems
  • Make calculations with reaction quotients and equilibrium constants
  • Apply Le Châtelier’s principle to predict the response of a stressed equilibrium system
  • Calculate changes in equilibriums concentrations or pressures

Module 14: Acid-Based Equilibria

Explore acid-base chemistry with a focus on the equilibrium aspects of these reactions

  • Describe the behavior of Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases
  • Apply an understanding of pH and pOH to characterize aqueous solutions and determine ion concentrations
  • Perform equilibrium calculations for Brønsted-Lowry acid-base systems
  • Understand hydrolysis in salt solutions
  • Apply equilibrium concepts to acids and bases
  • Explain acid-base buffers
  • Describe the important stages of acid-base titrations

Module 15: Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes

Develop a more in-depth understanding of equilibrium, including precipitation and coupled equilibrium reactions

  • Use the solubility product in equilibrium problems
  • Apply knowledge of Lewis acids and bases to equilibrium problems
  • Evaluate coupled equilibrium systems

Module 16: Thermodynamics

Evaluate possible chemical or physical changes to a reaction under a given set of thermodynamic conditions

  • Understand both spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes
  • Predict entropy changes
  • Explain the second and third laws of thermodynamics
  • Calculate free energy change

Module 17: Electrochemistry

Explore the fundamental aspects of redox chemistry and the technologies made possible from discoveries in the field of electrochemistry

  • Balance oxidation-reduction reactions
  • Interpret cell notation of galvanic cells
  • Explain electrode and cell potentials
  • Relate potential, free energy, and equilibrium through calculations
  • Describe the differences between batteries and fuel cells
  • Identify examples of corrosion
  • Make stoichiometric calculations for electrolytic processes

Module 18: Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals

Identify the important properties of representative metals, metalloids, and nonmetals in the periodic table

  • Classify and make predictions about the representative elements
  • Describe the occurrence and preparation of the representative metals
  • Describe the structure and general properties of the metalloids
  • Describe the structure and general properties of nonmetals
  • Describe the properties, preparation, and uses of hydrogen compounds
  • Describe the properties, preparation, and uses of some representative metal carbonates
  • Describe the properties, preparation, and uses of nitrogen
  • Describe the properties, preparation, and uses of phosphorus
  • Describe the properties, preparation, and uses of oxygen compounds
  • Describe the properties, preparation, and uses of sulfur
  • Describe the properties, preparation, and uses of halogens and halogen compounds
  • Describe the properties, preparation, and uses of the noble gases

Module 19: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

Explore the unique behaviors exhibited by transition metals due to their complex valence shells

  • Describe the properties, preparation, and occurrence of transition metals
  • Identify the properties, structures, names, and occurrence of coordination compounds
  • Understand crystal field theory concepts

Module 20: Organic Chemistry

Explain why the element carbon gives rise to a variety of compounds, and how those organic compounds are classified and used

  • Discuss the important properties of hydrocarbons
  • Describe, identify, and draw alcohols and ethers
  • Describe the structure and properties of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters
  • Describe the structure and properties of amines and amides

Module 21: Nuclear Chemistry

Understand how the discovery of radioactivity led to the creation of crucial technologies in the fields of energy, medicine, geology, and more

  • Describe nuclear structure and stability
  • Summarize nuclear reactions as equations
  • Perform radioactive decay calculations
  • Discuss nuclear fission and fusion reactions
  • Summarize the common uses of radioactive isotopes
  • Explain the biological effects of radiation exposure