References

  1. Day & Liley, The Secret World of a Baby, Random House, 1968, p. 13 
  2. Birth Defects Research and Tracking. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/research.html
  3. STDs during Pregnancy – CDC Fact Sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/std/pregnancy/stdfact-pregnancy.htm
  4. Maternal Illness – Birth Defect Prevention for Expecting Parents. Birth Defect Research for Children. Retrieved from https://www.birthdefects.org/healthy-baby/maternal-illness/
  5. Douros Konstantinos, Moustaki Maria, Tsabouri Sophia, Papadopoulou Anna, Papadopoulos Marios, Priftis Kostas N. (2017). Prenatal Maternal Stress and the Risk of Asthma in Children. Frontiers in Pediatrics. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fped.2017.00202
  6. Maternal mortality (February 2018). World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/maternal-mortality
  7. Black Women’s Maternal Health: A Multifaceted Approach to Addressing Persistent and Dire Health Disparities (April 2018). National Partnership for Women and Families. Retrieved from http://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/health/reports/black-womens-maternal-health.html. 
  8. Reproductive Health. Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pregnancy-mortality-surveillance-system.htm  
  1. Van Rossem, R., & Pannecoucke, I. (2019). Poverty and a child’s height development during early childhood: A double disadvantage? A study of the 2006-2009 birth cohorts in Flanders. PloS one, 14(1), e0209170. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209170 
  2. Neumann, Janice (September 2015). Small height differences among kids may reflect economic disparities. Reuters, Health News. Retried from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-children-height-poverty/small-height-differences-among-kids-may-reflect-economic-disparities-idUSKCN0RR11720150927
  3. Kerr GR, Lee ES, Lorimor RJ, Mueller WH, Lam MM (1982) Height distributions of U.S. children: associations with race, poverty status and parental size. Growth 46: 135–149. 
  4. How to Talk to Young Children About Body Safety. Kids First, Inc. Retrieved from https://www.kidsfirstinc.org/how-to-talk-to-young-children-about-body-safety/
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Childhood Obesity Facts. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/obesity/facts.htm
  6. Harvard School of Public Health. Child Obesity. Retrieved from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-trends/global-obesity-trends-in-children/
  7. U.S. Department of Agriculture. FACT SHEET: Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act School Meals Implementation. Retrieved from https://www.usda.gov/media/press-releases/2014/05/20/fact-sheet-healthy-hunger-free-kids-act-school-meals-implementation 
  8. Steinberg, L. (2013). Adolescence (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 
  9. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480. 
  10. Herman-Giddens, M.E., Steffes, J., Harris, D., Slora, E., Hussey, M., Dowshen, S.A, & Reiter, E.O. (2012). Secondary sexual characteristics in boys: Data from the pediatric research in office settings network. Pediatrics, 130(5), 1058-1068. 
  11. Mendle, J., Moore, S. R., Briley, D. A., & Harden, K. P. (2015). Puberty, socioeconomic status, and depression in girls: Evidence for gene x environment interactions. Clinical Psychological Science. Advance online publication. 
  12. Rudolph, K. D., Troop-Gordon, W., Lambert, S. F., & Natsuaki, M. N. (2014). Long-term consequences of pubertal timing for youth depression: Identifying personal and contextual pathways of risk. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 1423–1444. 
  13. Graber, J. A. (2013). Pubertal timing and the development of psychopathology in adolescence and beyond. Hormones and Behavior, 64, 262–269. 
  14. Romeo, R.D. (2013). The teenage brain: The stress response and the adolescent brain. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22 (2), 140-145. 
  15. Hartley, C.A. & Somerville, L.H. (2015). The neuroscience of adolescent decision-making. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 5, 108-115. 
  16. Steinberg, L. (2013). Adolescence (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 
  17. Steinberg, L. (2008) A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Developmental Review, 28:78-106. 
  18. National Institute of Mental Health. The Teen Brain: 6 Things to Know. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/the-teen-brain-6-things-to-know/index.shtml#pub6. 
  19. Christian P, Smith E, R: Adolescent Undernutrition: Global Burden, Physiology, and Nutritional Risks. Ann Nutr Metab 2018;72:316-328. doi: 10.1159/000488865 
  20. Markey, Charlotte (2019). “Teens, Body Image, and Social Media.” Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/smart-people-don-t-diet/201902/teens-body-image-and-social-media
  21. MMWR, (206, June 10). Youth risk behavior surveillance- United States, 2015: Morbidity Weekly Report, 65 (6). Altlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 
  22. van de Bongardt, D., Reitz, E., Sandfort, T. & Dekovic, J (2015). A meta-analysis of the relations between three types of peer norms and adolescent sexual behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 19 (3), 203-234. 
  23. Adolescent Sexuality Trisha Tulloch, Miriam Kaufman Pediatrics in Review Jan 2013, 34 (1) 29-38; DOI: 10.1542/pir.34-1-29 
  24. Tolman, D.L. & McClelland, S.I. (2011). Normative sexuality development in adolescence; A decade in review, 2000-2009. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21 (1), 242-255. 
  25. Iannelli, V. (2018). What Parents Need to Know About Baby Weight Trends and Newborn Gaining. Retrieved from https://www.verywellfamily.com/baby-birth-weight-statistics-2633630 
  26. Huelke D. F. (1998). An Overview of Anatomical Considerations of Infants and Children in the Adult World of Automobile Safety Design. Annual Proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, 42, 93–113. 
  27. Rauh, Sherry (n.d.). Is Your Baby on Track? WebMD. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/features/is-your-baby-on-track#1. 
  28. Berk, L. (2007). Development Through the Lifespan (4th ed.) (pp 137). Pearson Education. 
  29. Circumcision Policy Statement. Pediatrics. Retrieved from https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/130/3/585 
  30. Stack, D. M. (2010). Touch and Physical Contact during Infancy: Discovering the Richness of the Forgotten Sense. The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Infant Development, 532-567 
  31. Nelson, C. A., Fox, N. A., and Zeanah, C. H. (2014). Romania’s abandoned children: Deprivation, brain development, and the struggle for recovery. Cambridge, MA, and London, England: Harvard University Press. 
  32. Sullivan, R., Perry, R., Sloan, A., Kleinhaus, K., & Burtchen, N. (2011). Infant bonding and attachment to the caregiver: insights from basic and clinical science. Clinics in perinatology, 38(4), 643–655. doi:10.1016/j.clp.2011.08.011 
  33. What to Expect While Breastfeeding. CDC. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/InfantandToddlerNutrition/breastfeeding/what-to-expect.html
  34. Anderson, J.W., Johnstone, B.M., & Remley, D.T. (1999). Breast-feeding and cognitive development: a meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 4, 525–535, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/70.4.525 
  35. Islami, F., Liu, Y., Jemal, A., Zhou, J., Weiderpass, E., Colditz, G., Boffetta, P., & Weiss, M. (2015). Breastfeeding and breast cancer risks by receptor status- a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Oncology, 26,12. 2398–2407. 
  36. Titus-Ernstoff, Rees, L. Terry, R.R., & Cramer, D. W. (2010). Breast-feeding the last born child and risk of ovarian cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 21(2), 201–207. 
  37. Gunderson, E.P., Hurston, S.R., Dewey, K.G., Faith, M.S., Charvat-Aguilar, N., Khoury, V. C., Nguyen, V.T., & Quesenberry, C.P. (2015). The study of women, infant feeding and type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy and growth of their offspring (SWIFT Offspring study): prospective design, methodology and baseline characteristics. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15,150 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-015-0587-z 
  38. Karlson, E.W., Mandl, L.A., Hankinson, S. E., & Grodstein, F. (2004). Do breast-feeding and other reproductive factors influence future risk of rheumatoid arthritis? Results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Arthritis Rheum. 50,11, 3458-67. 
  39. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Women’s Health (2011). Your guide to breast feeding. Washington D.C. 
  40. KAZAL, L.A. (2002). Navajo Health Foundation/Sage Memorial Hospital, Ganado, Arizona Am Fam Physician. 66(7): 1217-1225. 
  41. Marie-Hélène Pennestri, Christine Laganière, Andrée-Anne Bouvette-Turcot, Irina Pokhvisneva, Meir Steiner, Michael J. Meaney, Hélène Gaudreau, on behalf of the Mavan Research Team (December 2018). Uninterrupted Infant Sleep, Development, and Maternal Mood. Pediatrics, Volume 142. 
  42. David Richter, Michael D Krämer, Nicole K Y Tang, Hawley E Montgomery-Downs, Sakari Lemola, Long-term effects of pregnancy and childbirth on sleep satisfaction and duration of first-time and experienced mothers and fathers, Sleep, Volume 42, Issue 4, April 2019, zsz015, https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz015 
  43. Macall Gordon (October 2018). From Safe Sleep to Healthy Sleep: A Systemic Perspective on Sleep In the First Year. Northwest Bulletin: Family and Child Health. University of Washington. retrieved from https://depts.washington.edu/nwbfch/infant-safe-sleep-development. 
  44. Esposito, G., Setoh, P., & Bornstein, M.H. (2015). Beyond practices and values: Toward a physio-bioecological analysis of sleep arrangements in early infancy. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 264. 
  45. Colvin, J.D., Collie-Akers, V., Schunn, C., & Moon, RY (2014). Sleep environment risks for younger and older infants. Pediatrics. 134(2):e406-12. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0401. 
  46. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/3/5/e002299.long 
  47. Sears, W. & Sears, M. (2001). The attachment parenting book: A commonsense guide to understanding and nurturing your baby. Boston: MA: Little Brown. 
  48. Colson, E.R., Willinger, M., Rybin, D., Heeren, T., Smith, L.A., Lister, G. & Corwin, M.J. (2013). Trends and factors associated with infant bed sharing, 1993-2010: The National Sleep Position study. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(11), 1032-1037. 
  49. SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Updated 2016 Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment. Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Pediatrics. Retrieved from https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/138/5/e20162938
  50. Linn, P. (2016). Risky behaviors: Integrating adolescent egocentrism with the theory of planned behavior. Review of General Psychology, 20 (4), 392-398. 
  51. Kuhn, D. (2013). Reasoning. In Philip D. Zelazo (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of developmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 744-764). New York: NY: Oxford University Press. 
  52. Klaczynski, P.A. & Felmban, W.S. (2014). Heuristics and biases during adolescence: Developmental reversals and individual differences. In Henry Markovitz (Ed.), The developmental psychology of reasoning and decision making (pp. 84-111). New York, NY: Psychology Press. 
  53. Crone, E.A., & Dahl, R.E. (2012). Understanding adolescence as a period of social-affective engagement and goal flexibility. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13 (9), 636-650. 
  54. Rieff, M.I. (1998). Adolescent school failure: Failure to thrive in adolescence. Pediatrics in Review, 19 (6). 
  55. Parker, A. K. (2013). Understanding and supporting young adolescents during the transition into middle school. In P. G. Andrews (Ed.), Research to guide practice in middle grades education (pp. 495-510). Westerville, OH: Association for Middle Level Education. 
  56. McGill, R.K., Hughes, D., Alicea, S., & Way, N. (2012). Academic adjustment across middle school: The role of public regard and parenting. Developmental Psychology, 48 (4), 1003-1008. 
  57. U.S. Department of Education Mentoring Resource Center (2008). Making the transition to middle school: How mentoring can help. MRC: Mentoring Resource Center Fact Sheet, No. 24. Retrieved from http://fbmentorcenter.squarespace.com/storage/MiddleSchoolTransition.pdf 
  58. Brighton, K. L. (2007). Coming of age: The education and development of young adolescents. Westerville, OH: National Middle School Association. 
  59. Baly, M.W., Cornell, D.G., & Lovegrove, P. (2014). A longitudinal investigation of self and peer reports of bullying victimization across middle school. Psychology in the Schools, 51 (3), 217-240. 
  60. Meece, J.L. & Eccles, J.S. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook on research on schools, schooling, and human development. New York, NY: Routledge. 
  61. Coyne, S.M., Padilla-Walker, L.M., & Holmgren, H.G. (2018). A six-year longitudinal study of texting trajectories during adolescence. Child Development, 89 (1), 58-65. 
  62. Gewertz, C. (2017, May 3). Is the high school graduation rate inflated? No, study says (Web log post). Education Week. 
  63. Kena, G., Hussar, W., McFarland, J., de Brey, C., Musu-Gillette, L., Wang, X., & Dunlop Velez, E. (2016). The condition of education 2016, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 
  64. Vera-Estay,E. Dooley, J.J. & Beauchamp, M.H. (2014). Cognitive underpinnings of moral reasoning in adolescence: The contribution of executive functions. Journal of Moral Education, 44 (1), 17-33. 
  65. McDevitt, T.M. & Ormrod, J.E. (2004). Child development: Educating and working with children and adolescents. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. 
  66. Mareshcal, D. & Kauffman, J. (2012). Object Permanence in infancy: Revisiting Baillargeon’s drawbridge study. In Alan M. Slaster & Paul C. Quinn (Eds.), Developmental Psychology: Revisiting the classic studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 
  67. Bauer PJ, Pathman T. Memory and Early Brain Development. In: Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Peters RDeV, eds. Paus T, topic ed. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/brain/according-experts/memory-and-early-brain-development. Published December 2008. Accessed March 2, 2019. 
  68. Schneider, Wolfgang. (2015). This belief came in part from findings that adults rarely recall personal events from before the age of 3 years (a phenomenon known as infantile or childhood amnesia). However, research with infants and young children has made it clear that they can and do form memories of events. Memory development from early childhood through emerging adulthood. Switzerland: Spring International. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-09611-7. 
  69. Mullally, Sinead L. & Maguire, Eleanor. A. (2014). Learning to remember: The early ontogeny of episodic memory. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 9(13), 12-29. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2013.12.006 
  70. Tomasello, M. & Hermann, E. (2010). Ape and human cognition. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(1), 3-8. 
  71. The experimenters support these claims by citing the following studies: (1) DeBruine, L.M. Facial resemblance enhances trust: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 2002, 269: 1307-1312. (2) Brewer, M.B. In-group bias in the minimal intergroup situation: A cognitive-motivational analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 1979, 86: 307-324. (3) Doise, W., Cspely, G., Dann, and others. An experimental investigation into the formation of intergroup representation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1972, 2: 202-204. 
  72. Thiam, M.A., Flake, E.M. & Dickman, M.M. (2017). Infant and child mental health and perinatal illness. In Melinda A. Thiam (Ed.), Perinatal mental health and the military family: Identifying and treating mood and anxiety disorders. New York, NY: Routledge. 
  73. Kopp, C.B. (2011). Development in the early years: Socialization, motor development; and consciousness. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 165-187. 
  74. Garthus-Niegel, S., Ayers, S., Martini, J., von Soest, T. & Eberhard-Gran, M. (2017). The impact of postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms on child development: A population based, 2-year follow-up study. Psychological Medicine, 47(1), 161-170. 
  75. Yu Junhong, Kam Chi-Ming, Lee Tatia M. C. (2016). Better Working Memory and Motor Inhibition in Children Who Delayed Gratification. Frontiers in Psychology. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01098/full 
  76. Tyler W. Watts, Greg J. Duncan, Haonan Quan (May 25, 2018). Revisiting the Marshmallow Test: A Conceptual Replication Investigating Links Between Early Delay of Gratification and Later Outcomeshttps://doi.org/10.1177/0956797618761661 
  77. Salcuni Silvia, Di Riso Daniela, Mabilia Diana, Lis Adriana (2017). “Psychotherapy with a 3-Year-Old Child: The Role of Play in the Unfolding Process”. Frontiers in Psychology. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02021/full 
  78. Strauss, Elissa (April 2018). “Why girls can be boyish but boys can’t be girlish”. CNN. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2018/04/12/health/boys-girls-gender-norms-parenting-strauss/index.html
  79. (April 2018) “Employment Characteristics of Families.” Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/famee.pdf 
  80. Geiger, A.W., Livingston, Gretchen, and Bialik, Kristen (May 2019). “6 facts about U.S. moms.” Pew Research Center. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/05/08/facts-about-u-s-mothers/ 
  81. Highland Spring Group. “34 minutes: The amount of time the average family gets to spend together each day.” Retrieved from http://www.highlandspringgroup.com/press-and-media/group-news/article/34-minutes-the-amount-of-time-the-average-family-gets-to-spend-together-each-day/
  82. Coleman-Jensen, Alisha, Matthew Rabbitt, Christian Gregory, and Anita Singh (2018). “Household Food Security in the United States.” United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. Retrieved from https://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/pub-details/?pubid=90022 
  83. No Kid Hungry. “Facts About Childhood Hunger.” Retrieved from https://www.nokidhungry.org/who-we-are/hunger-facts
  84. Diana F. Jyoti, Edward A. Frongillo,4 and Sonya J. Jones (2005)Food Insecurity Affects School Children’s Academic Performance,Weight Gain, and Social Skills,  American Society for Nutrition. 
  85. Pearson, Bryan. My (Kid’s) Generation: 5 Ways Today’s Tweens Are Changing Retail. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/bryanpearson/2016/04/14/my-kids-generation-5-ways-todays-tweens-are-changing-retail/#1011b2dd42ef 
  86. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Stop Bullying. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/bullyingresearch/fastfact.html
  87. Wolf, Jennifer. The Single Parent Statistics Based on Census Data. Verywell Family. Retrieved from https://www.verywellfamily.com/single-parent-census-data-2997668
  88. Warshak, Richard (2017). After divorce, shared parenting is best for children’s health and development. Stat. Retrieved from https://www.statnews.com/2017/05/26/divorce-shared-parenting-children-health/
  89. Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 551–558. 
  90. Kim-Spoon, J., Longo, G.S., & McCullough, M.E. (2012) Parent-adolescent relationship quality as a moderator for the influence of parents’ religiousness on adolescents’ religiousness and adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(12), 1576-1587. 
  91. Taylor, P. (2014). The next America: Boomers, millennials, and the looming generational showdown. New York, NY: Public Affairs. 
  92. Stattin, H., Hussein, O., Ozdemir, M., & Russo, S. (2017). Why do some adolescents encounter everyday events that increase their civil interest whereas others do not? Developmental Psychology, 53 (2), 306-318. 
  93. Phinney, J. (1989). Stages of ethnic identity in minority group adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 9, 34–49. 
  94. Reisner, S.L., Katz-Wise, S.L., Gordon, A.R., Corliss, H.L., & Austin, S.B. (2016). Social epidemiology of depression and anxiety by gender identity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 59 (2), 203-208. 
  95. Sinclair, S. & Carlsson, R. (2013). What will I be when I grow up? The impact of gender identity threat on adolescents’ occupational preferences. Journal of Adolescence, 36(3), 465-474. 
  96. Flores, A., J. Herman, G. Gates, and T. N.T. Brown. “How many adults identify as transgender.” The Williams Institute. http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/How-Many-Adults-Identify-as-Transgender-in-the-United-States.pdf. 
  97. Salam, M. “For transgender Americans, the political gets even more personal” (2018). The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/26/us/transgender-lgbt-rights-trump.html
  98. Strangio, C. 2018. “Deadly violence against transgender people.” ACLU. https://www.aclu.org/blog/lgbt-rights/criminal-justice-reform-lgbt-people/deadly-violence-against-transgender-people-rise
  99. Stattin, H., & Kerr, M. (2000). Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. Child Development, 71, 1072–1085. 
  100. Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67, 3296–3319. 
  101. Dishion, T. J., & Tipsord, J. M. (2011). Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 189–214. 
  102. Brown, B. B., & Larson, J. (2009). Peer relationships in adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 74–103). New York, NY: Wiley. 
  103. Livingston, Gretchen (February 2018). The way U.S. teens spend their time is changing, but differences between boys and girls persist. Pew Research Center. 
  104. Connolly, J., Furman, W., & Konarski, R. (2000). The role of peers in the emergence of heterosexual romantic relationships in adolescence. Child Development, 71, 1395–1408. 
  105. Furman, W., & Shaffer, L. (2003). The role of romantic relationships in adolescent development. In P. Florsheim (Ed.), Adolescent romantic relations and sexual behavior: Theory, research, and practical implications (pp. 3–22). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. 
  106. Russell, S. T., Clarke, T. J., & Clary, J. (2009). Are teens “post-gay”? Contemporary adolescents’ sexual identity labels. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 884–890. 
  107. Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis-stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885–908. 
  108. Dick, D. M., Meyers, J. L., Latendresse, S. J., Creemers, H. E., Lansford, J. E., … Huizink, A. C. (2011). CHRM2, parental monitoring, and adolescent externalizing behavior: Evidence for gene-environment interaction. Psychological Science, 22, 481–489. 
  109. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia Press. 
  110. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life course persistent antisocial behavior: Developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701. 
  111. Healy, Melissa (August 24, 2015). “Why the U.S. is No. 1 – in mass shootings”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 6, 2017. 
  112. Grinberg, Emanuella (January 25, 2016). “The real mental health issue behind gun violence”. CNN. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  113. Campbell, Holly (December 2, 2015). “Inside the mind of a mass murderer”. WANE-TV. Retrieved November 9, 2017. 
  114. Christensen, Jen (October 5, 2017). “Why the US has the most mass shootings”. CNN. Retrieved November 6, 2017. 
  115. Peters, Justin (December 19, 2013). “Everything You Think You Know about Mass Murder Is Wrong”. Slate. 
  116. Ferguson, Christopher J.; Coulson, Mark; Barnett, Jane (January 1, 2011). “Psychological Profiles of School Shooters: Positive Directions and One Big Wrong Turn”. Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations. 11 (2): 141–158. doi:10.1080/15332586.2011.581523. 
  117. Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Garbarino, Christina; Carlson, Mary I. (2006). “Pathological teasing and bullying turned deadly: Shooters and suicide”. Victims and Offenders. 1 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1080/15564880500498705. 
  118. Rudolph, K. D. (2009). The interpersonal context of adolescent depression. In S. Nolen-Hoeksema & L. M. Hilt (Eds.), Handbook of depression in adolescents (pp. 377–418). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis. 
  119. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 
  120. Uddin, M., Koenen, K.C., de los Santos, R., Bakshis, E., Aielle, A.E., & Galea, S. (2010). Gender differences in the genetic and environmental determinants of adolescent depression. Depression and Anxiety, 27(7), 658-666. 
  121. Berger, K.S. (2019). Invitation to the Lifespan (4th ed). Worth Publishers, NY. 
  122. Rudolph, K. D. (2009). The interpersonal context of adolescent depression. In S. Nolen-Hoeksema & L. M. Hilt (Eds.), Handbook of depression in adolescents (pp. 377–418). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis. 
  123. Case, R. (1991). The mind’s staircase: Exploring the conceptual underpinnings of children’s thought and knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  124. Case, R. & Okamoto, Y. (1996). The role of central conceptual structures in children’s thought. Chicago: Society for Research on Child Development.
  125. Harris, J. (2006). No two alike: Human nature and human individuality. New York: Norton.
  126. Lewis, M. (1997). Altering fate: Why the past does not predict the future. New York: Guilford Press.
  127. Slavin, R. (2005). Educational psychology, 7th edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  128. Woolfolk, A. (2006). Educational psychology, 10th edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  129. Allender, J. (2005). Community health nursing, 6th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.
  130. Center for Disease Control. (2004a). National survey on drug use and health. Bethesda, MD: Department of Health and Human Services.
  131. Center for Disease Control (2004b). Trends in the prevalence of sexual behaviors, 1991–2003. Bethesda, MD: Author.
  132. Eveleth, P. & Tanner, J. (1990). Worldwide variation in human growth (2nd edition). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  133. Fagan, A. & Najman, J. (2005). The relative contribution of parental and sibling substance use to adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. Journal of Drug Issues, 35, 869–883.
  134. Johnston, L., O’Malley, P., Bachman, J., & Schulenberg, J. (2006). Monitoring the future: National results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2005. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
  135. Malina, R., Bouchard, C., & Bar-Or O. (2004). Growth, maturation, and physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Press.
  136. McClintock, M. & Herdt, G. (1996). Rethinking puberty: The development of sexual attraction. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 5, 178–183.
  137. National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases. (2005). The common cold. Bethesda, MD: Author. Also available at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/facts/cold.htm.
  138. Petlichkoff, L. (1996). The drop-out dilemma in youth sports. In O. Bar-Or (Ed.), The child and adolescent athlete (pp. 418–432). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  139. Richardson, J. (2005). The cost of being poor. Westport, CN: Praeger.
  140. Rosenbaum, J. (2006). Reborn a Virgin: Adolescents’ Retracting of Virginity Pledges and Sexual Histories. American Journal of Public Health, 96(6), xxx–yyy.
  141. Sadker, M. (2004). Gender equity in the classroom: The unfinished agenda. In M. Kimmel (Ed.), The gendered society reader, 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press.
  142. Spencer, N. (2000). Poverty and child health, 2nd edition. Abingdon, UK: Radcliffe Medical Press.
  143. Tartamella, L., Herscher, E., Woolston, C. (2004). Generation extra large: Rescuing our children from the obesity epidemic. New York: Basic Books.
  144. Taylor, J. & Gilligan, C., & Sullivan, A. (1995). Between voice and silence: Women and girls, race and relationship. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  145. Whelen, E., Lawson, C., Grajewski, B., Petersen, M., Pinkerton, L., Ward, E., & Schnorr, T. (2003). Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among female flight attendants and teachers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60, 929–934.
  146. Ben Deen, Hilary Richardson, Daniel D. Dilks, Atsushi Takahashi, Boris Keil, Lawrence L. Wald, Nancy Kanwisher & Rebecca Saxe.”Article | OPEN | Published: 10 January 2017
    Organization of high-level visual cortex in human infants”. Image retrieved from https://www.quantamagazine.org/infant-brains-reveal-how-the-mind-gets-built-20170110/.
  147. Bredekamp, S. & Copple, C. (1997). Developmentally appropriate practice, Revised edition. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
  148. Case, R. & Okamoto, Y. (1996). The role of central conceptual structures in children’s thought. Chicago: Society for Research on Child Development.
  149. Inhelder, B. & Piaget, J. (1958). The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence: An essay on the growth of formal operational structures. New York: Basic Books.
  150. Matthews, G. (1998). The philosophy of childhood. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  151. Paley, V. (2005). A child’s work: The importance of fantasy play. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  152. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York: International Universities Press.
  153. Piaget, J. (2001). The psychology of intelligence. Oxford, UK: Routledge
  154. Beidel, B. (2005). Childhood anxiety disorders. Oxford, UK: Brunner-Routledge.
  155. Eyler, J. & Giles, D. (1999). Where’s the learning in service learning? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  156. Kay, C. (2003). The complete guide to service learning. New York: Free Spirit Publishing.
  157. Maslow, A. (1987). Motivation and personality, 3rd edition. New York: Harper & Row.
  158. Maslow, A. (1976). The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, 2nd edition. New York: Penguin Books.
  159. Payne, R. (2005). A framework for understanding poverty. Highlands, TX: aha!Process, Inc.
  160. Zimbardo, P. & Radl, S. (1999). The shy child: Overcoming and preventing shyness from birth to adulthood. Cambridge, MA: Malor Books.
  161. Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2007). Tools of the mind: The Vygotskian approach to early childhood education (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River,
    NJ: Pearson.
  162. Bruner, J. (1972). The nature and uses of immaturity. American Psychologist, 27, 687-708.
  163. Johnson, J. E., Christie, J. F., & Wardle, F. (2005). Play, development, and early education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
  164. Frost, Joe L. Play and Playscapes. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers Inc. 1992. p.78-79.
  165. Frost, Joe L., Pei-San Brown, John A. Sutterby, Candra D. Thornton. The Developmental Benefits of Playgrounds. Olney, MD: Association for Childhood Education International, 2004. p. 25.
  166. Frost, Joe L., Sue Wortham, and Stuart Reifel. Play and Child Development. Upper Saddle Valley, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001. p.48
  167. “Types of Play.” Child Development Institute. < http://www.childevelopmentinfo.com/development/p11.shtml > 27 Aug. 2010.
  168. Drew, Walter F., James Christie, James E. Johnson, Alice M. Meckley, and Marcia L. Nell. “Constructive Play. A Value-Added Strategy for Meeting Early Learning Standards.” Young Children. July 2008: 38-40.
  169. Chaille, C. (2008). Constructivism across the curriculum in early childhood classrooms. Big ideas as inspiration. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
  170. Leong, D. L. & Bodrova, E. (2015). Assessing and scaffolding make-believe play. In Bohart, H., Charner, K., & Koraleck, D. (Eds.), Spotlight on young children: Exploring play (pp 26-36). Washington, DC: NAEYC
  171. Free to Learn( Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier More Self-Reliant and Better Students for Life) Binding: Hardcover Author: GrayPeter Publisher: BasicBooks(AZ)
  172. Vygotsky, Lev S. 1967. “Play and Its Role in the Mental Development of the Child.” Soviet Psychology 5:6–18
  173. Berkowitz, M. & Bier, M. (2006). What works in character education: A research-driven guide for educators. St. Louis, MO: Center for Character and Citizenship.
  174. Brown, L. & Gilligan, C. (1992). Meeting at the crossroads: Women’s psychology and girls’ development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  175. Elkind, D. & Sweet, F. (2006). How to do character education. Accessed February 1, 2011 at http://www.goodcharacter.com/Article_4.html.
  176. Kohlberg, L., Levine, C., & Hewer, A. (1983). Moral stages: A current formulation and a response to critics. Basel: S. Karger.
  177. Minow, M., Shweder, R., & Markus, H. (Eds.). (2008). Just schools: Pursuing equality in societies of difference. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
  178. Narvaez, D. (2010). Moral complexity: The fatal attraction of truthiness and the importance of mature moral functioning. Perspectives on psychological science, 5(2), 162–181.
  179. Taylor, J. & Gilligan, C., & Sullivan, A. (1995). Between voice and silence: Women and girls, race and relationship. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.