Various Teaching Strategies

Behavioral Model

Direct Instruction

Teacher-centered instruction which includes lecture, presentation, and recitation.

Step 1-Review Previously Learned Material
Step 2-State Objectives for the Lesson
Step 3-Present New Material

  • Lectures
  • Demonstrations

Step 4-Guide Practice, Assess Performance, and Provide Corrective Feedback

  • Questioning
  • Feedback

Step 5-Assign Independent Practice, Assess Performance, and Provide Corrective Feedback

  • Worksheets
  • Unitization and Automaticity
  • Rubrics

Step 6-Review Periodically, Offering Corrective Feedback If Necessary

Information-Processing Models

Concept Attainment

Inductive model of instruction where student are presented with examples and non-examples of a concept. Students generate hypotheses and attempt to describe (and sometimes name) the concept.

Step 1-Select and Define a Concept and Select the Attributes
Step 2-Develop Positive and Negative Examples
Step 3-Introduce the Process to the Students
Step 4-Present the Examples and List the Attributes
Step 5-Develop a Concept Definition
Step 6-Give Additional Test Examples
Step 7-Discuss the Process with the Class
Step 8-Evaluate

Concept Development

Inductive teaching model. Concepts are taught using the sequence: list items, group items, label, regroup, synthesize, and evaluate (can students generate and group on their own?)

Step 1-List as Many Items as Possible That Are Associated with The Subject
Step 2-Group the Items Because They Are Alike in Some Way
Step 3-Label the Groups by Defining the Reasons for Grouping
Step 4-Regroup or Subsume Individual Items or Whole Groups Under Other Groups
Step 5-Synthesize the Information by Summarizing the Data and Forming Generalizations
Step 6-Evaluate Students’ Progress by Assessing Their Ability to Generate a Wide Variety of Items and to Group Those Items Flexibly

Vocabulary Acquisition Model

Step 1-Pretest Knowledge of Words Critical to Content
Step 2-Elaborate upon and Discuss Invented Spellings and Hypothesized Meanings
Step 3-Explore Patterns of Meaning
Step 4-Read and Study

Synectics

Metaphors generated by the students are used to help them understand controversial issues or solve problems.

Version One: Making the Familiar Strange
Step 1-Describe the Topic
Step 2-Create Direct Analogies
Step 3-Describe Personal Analogies
Step 4-Identify Compressed Conflicts
Step 5-Create a New Direct Analogy
Step 6-Reexamine the Original Topic
Step 7-Evaluate

Version Two: Making the Strange Familiar
Step 1-Provide Information
Step 2-Present the Analogy
Step 3-Use Personal Analogy to Create Compressed Conflicts
Step 4-Compare the Compressed Conflict with the Subject
Step 5-Identify Differences
Step 6-Reexamine the Original Subject
Step 7-Create New Direct Analogies
Step 8-Evaluate

Version Three: The Synectics Excursion
Step 1-Present the Problem
Step 2-Provide Expert Information
Step 3-Question Obvious Solutions and Purge
Step 4-Generate Individual Problem Statements
Step 5-Choose One Problem Statement for Focus
Step 6-Question through the Use of Analogies
Step 7-Force Analogies to Fit the Problem
Step 8-Determine a Solution from a New Viewpoint
Step 9-Evaluate

Cause-Effect

Step 1-Choose the Data or Topic, Action, or Problem to Be Analyzed
Step 2-Ask for Causes and Support for Those Causes
Step 3-Ask for Effects and Support
Step 4-Ask for Prior Causes and Support
Step 5-Ask for Subsequent Effects and Support
Step 6-Ask for Conclusions
Step 7-Ask for Generalizations

Memorization

Actively organizing and working with concepts or terminology to improve incorporating those concepts into memory.

Problem-Centered Inquiry Models

Suchman Inquiry Model

Like twenty questions. Teacher poses problem then helps students solve problem by answering “yes” or “no” to student questions.

Step 1-Select a Problem and Conduct Research
Step 2-Introduce the Process and Present the Problem
Step 3-Gather Data
Step 4-Develop a Theory and Verify
Step 5-Explain the Theory and State the Rules Associated with It
Step 6-Analyze the Process
Step 7-Evaluate

Problem-based Learning Model

Step 1-Explore the Problem
Step 2-Use the Inquiry Chart to Map Learning
Step 3-Share different solutions
Step 4-Take Action

Conflict Resolution Model

Step 1-List All the Facts Pertinent to the Conflict
Step 2-Identify the Reasons for the Actions, the Feelings of the Participants, and the Reasons for Those Feelings
Step 3-Propose Solutions and Review Their Possible Effects
Step 4-Decide on the Best Resolutions and Hypothesize What the Consequences Would Be
Step 5-Discuss Similar Situations
Step 6-Evaluate the Decision and Look for Alternative Solutions
Step 7-Arrive at Generalizations
Step 8-Evaluate

Eggen and Kauchak’s Integrative Model: Generalizing from Data

Step 1-Describe, Compare, and Search for Patterns
Step 2-Explanation of the Identified Comparisons
Step 3-Hypothesizing Different Outcomes
Step 4-Closure and Application

Social/Relational/Cooperative Learning Models

Cooperative Learning Model: The Template

Planning Steps
Develop clear instructional goals
Consider and plan the number in and composition of groups
Make certain that the cooperative activity has all of the key elements of cooperative learning
Implementation Steps
Explanation of task
Identify the social skills that are critical for the success of the group
Monitor and provide feedback to individual groups as they are working
Group Summaries
Evaluation
Assess Group Process

The Graffiti Model

Step 1-Prepare the Graffiti Questions and Group Number and Composition
Step 2-Distribute Materials
Step 3-Group Answers Questions
Step 4-Exchange Questions
Step 5-Return to the Original Question, Summarize, and Make Generalizations
Step 6-Share Information
Step 7-Evaluate Group Process

The Jigsaw Model

Jigsaw I: Cooperative activity. The basic steps include: reading, meeting with expert groups, report back to main team, demonstrate knowledge through a test or report.
Jigsaw II: Cooperative activity. Basic steps: Read with group, discuss individual topic with expert groups, report back to team (to teach them what you learned in your expert group), test, team recognition.
Step 1-Introduce Jigsaw
Step 2-Assign Heterogeneously Grouped Students to Expert and Learning Groups and Review Behavior Norms
Step 3-Explain Task and Assemble Groups
Step 4-Allow Expert Groups to Process Information
Step 5-Experts Teach in Their Learning Group
Step 6-Individual Accountability
Step 7-Evaluating the Jigsaw Process

Academic Controversy

Step 1-Students Prepare Their Positions
Step 2-Students Present and Advocate Their Position
Step 3-Open Discussion and Rebuttals
Step 4-Reverse Positions
Step 5-Synthesize and Integrate the Best Evidence Into a Joint Position
Step 6-Present the Group Synthesis
Step 7-Group Processing

Socratic Seminar Model (under development)

Step 1-Prepare a set of questions with no right or wrong answers relevant to the students lives related to the subject matter.
Step 2-Break the class into two groups. Seat one around a group of tables. The second group stands around the seated group to listen and observe and think of additional relevant questions.
Step 3-Assign various questions to various people in the group to discuss your questions.
Step 4-Begin the discussion. As they discuss the questions model the discussion by hopping in to the conversation.
Step 5-Limit the conversation to allow the other questions to be asked.
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Sources:
Gunter, M. A., Estes, T. H., & Mintz, S. L. (2007). Instruction: a models approach. Boston, MA: Pearson, A and B.
Maxwell Resources. (n.d.). WKU IT ASA. Retrieved December 06, 2010, from http://people.wku.edu/marge.maxwell/Resources.html