Multiple Intelligence

Not long ago (relatively speaking), Howard Gardner came up with the theory of multiple intelligences, basically explaining that we all have strengths, weaknesses, and a unique combination of cognitive abilities. What intelligence(s) do you believe is your strength or weakness? Why?

Multiple Intelligences Theory was developed by Howard Gardner, a Harvard psychologist and former student of Erik Erikson. Gardner’s theory, which has been refined for more than 30 years, is a more recent development among theories of intelligence. In Gardner’s theory, each person possesses at least eight intelligences. Among these eight intelligences, a person typically excels in some and falters in others (Gardner, 1983). The below able describes each type of intelligence.

Multiple Intelligences
Intelligence Type Characteristics Representative Career
Linguistic intelligence Perceives different functions of language, different sounds and meanings of words, may easily learn multiple languages Journalist, novelist, poet, teacher
Logical-mathematical intelligence Capable of seeing numerical patterns, strong ability to use reason and logic Scientist, mathematician
Musical intelligence Understands and appreciates rhythm, pitch, and tone; may play multiple instruments or perform as a vocalist Composer, performer
Bodily kinesthetic intelligence High ability to control the movements of the body and use the body to perform various physical tasks Dancer, athlete, athletic coach, yoga instructor
Spatial intelligence Ability to perceive the relationship between objects and how they move in space Choreographer, sculptor, architect, aviator, sailor
Interpersonal intelligence Ability to understand and be sensitive to the various emotional states of others Counselor, social worker, salesperson
Intrapersonal intelligence Ability to access personal feelings and motivations, and use them to direct behavior and reach personal goals Key component of personal success over time
Naturalist intelligence High capacity to appreciate the natural world and interact with the species within it Biologist, ecologist, environmentalist

Gardner’s theory is relatively new and needs additional research to better establish empirical support. At the same time, his ideas challenge the traditional idea of intelligence to include a wider variety of abilities, although it has been suggested that Gardner simply relabeled what other theorists called “cognitive styles” as “intelligences” (Morgan, 1996). Furthermore, developing traditional measures of Gardner’s intelligences is extremely difficult (Furnham, 2009; Gardner & Moran, 2006; Klein, 1997).

Gardner’s inter- and intrapersonal intelligences are often combined into a single type: emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence encompasses the ability to understand the emotions of yourself and others, show empathy, understand social relationships and cues, and regulate your own emotions and respond in culturally appropriate ways (Parker, Saklofske, & Stough, 2009). People with high emotional intelligence typically have well-developed social skills. Some researchers, including Daniel Goleman, the author of Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ, argue that emotional intelligence is a better predictor of success than traditional intelligence (Goleman, 1995). However, emotional intelligence has been widely debated, with researchers pointing out inconsistencies in how it is defined and described, as well as questioning results of studies on a subject that is difficulty to measure and study emperically (Locke, 2005; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2004)

Intelligence can also have different meanings and values in different cultures. If you live on a small island, where most people get their food by fishing from boats, it would be important to know how to fish and how to repair a boat. If you were an exceptional angler, your peers would probably consider you intelligent. If you were also skilled at repairing boats, your intelligence might be known across the whole island. Think about your own family’s culture. What values are important for Latino families? Italian families? In Irish families, hospitality and telling an entertaining story are marks of the culture. If you are a skilled storyteller, other members of Irish culture are likely to consider you intelligent.

Some cultures place a high value on working together as a collective. In these cultures, the importance of the group supersedes the importance of individual achievement. When you visit such a culture, how well you relate to the values of that culture exemplifies your cultural intelligence, sometimes referred to as cultural competence.  

Below is a quiz used to determine your top three, most dominate intelligences. We’ll discuss them in a journal. If the form does not show up below it can be found by clicking this link.