- Define ion-dipole force.
- An ion-dipole interaction occurs between a fully charged ion and a partially charged dipole.
- The strength of the ion-dipole force is proportionate to ion charge.
- An ion-induced dipole interaction occurs between a fully charged ion and a temporarily charged dipole. The temporary dipole is induced by the presence of the ion.
- ion-dipole forcesAn electrostatic interaction involving a permanent dipole in one molecule and an ion.
- ionAn atom or group of atoms bearing an electrical charge, such as sodium and chlorine in table salt.
- ion-induced dipole forceAn electrostatic interaction involving a temporary dipole in one molecule and a permanently charged ion.
Ion-dipole and ion-induced dipole forces operate much like dipole-dipole and induced dipole-dipole interactions. However, ion-dipole forces involve ions instead of solely polar molecules. Ion-dipole forces are stronger than dipole interactions because the charge of any ion is much greater than the charge of a dipole; the strength of the ion-dipole force is proportionate to ion charge. Ion-dipole bonding is also stronger than hydrogen bonding. An ion-dipole force consists of an ion and a polar molecule aligning so that the positive and negative charges are next to one another, allowing for maximum attraction.
Ion-Induced Dipole Force
An ion-induced dipole force occurs when an ion interacts with a non-polar molecule. Like a dipole-induced dipole force, the charge of the ion causes a distortion of the electron cloud in the non-polar molecule, causing a temporary partial charge. The temporary partially charged dipole and the ion are attracted to each other and form a fleeting interaction.
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