There are a few basic guidelines to understand about the water lines leading to instrumentation. Please pay attention to these! Do not cause a flood in the lab!
Figure E.2.1: Valve showing counterclockwise to open, clockwise to close.
We should create our own figure.
1) Righty tighty, lefty loosey. Close most valves and tighten most screws by rotating clockwise (towards right side if you face the valve). However *some valves or screws can tighten counterclockwise*. AN important exception to the righty-tighty / lefty -loosey rule are screws that attach saw blades to saws. These are often threaded backwards to keep the saw blade from getting loose during use!
Here is a website with some animations showing how valves work: http://www.tlv.com/global/TI/steam-theory/types-of-valves.html .
You can see that ball valves are open when the handle is parallel to the pipe, and closed when the handle is perpendicular to the pipe.
2) Metal pipes are strong, flexible plastic tubes are weaker. You should always turn off the water supply *at the wall* using a valve on the metal pipe of given an option. If you leave water flowing through plastic tubes, and then close the end of the plastic tube, you are asking for the plastic tube to blow out and cause a flood!
3) Hose clamps attach flexible tubing to metal fittings, so the plastic flexible tubing can be attached to metal pipes (usually at the wall). Hose clamps are tightened using a screwdriver. If you see a leak at a joint with a hose clamp, turn off the water first! Then check to see if the hose clamp is really loose. Tighten, but do not over-tighten – you could damage the flexible tube.
Pictures and more about hose clamps can be found here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hose_clamp
TLV (2018) Types of Manual Valves. http://www.tlv.com/global/TI/steam-theory/types-of-valves.html
Wikipedia contributors. (2018, August 14). Hose clamp. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:17, December 4, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hose_clamp&oldid=854922117