Glossary

 Bone Tissue

articular cartilage
thin layer of cartilage covering an epiphysis; reduces friction and acts as a shock absorber
articulation
where two bone surfaces meet
bone
hard, dense connective tissue that forms the structural elements of the skeleton
canaliculi
(singular = canaliculus) channels within the bone matrix that house one of an osteocyte’s many cytoplasmic extensions that it uses to communicate and receive nutrients
cartilage
semi-rigid connective tissue found on the skeleton in areas where flexibility and smooth surfaces support movement
central canal
longitudinal channel in the center of each osteon; contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels; also known as the Haversian canal
closed reduction
manual manipulation of a broken bone to set it into its natural position without surgery
compact bone
dense osseous tissue that can withstand compressive forces
diaphysis
tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of a long bone
endochondral ossification
process in which bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage
endosteum
delicate membranous lining of a bone’s medullary cavity
epiphyseal line
completely ossified remnant of the epiphyseal plate
epiphyseal plate
(also, growth plate) sheet of hyaline cartilage in the metaphysis of an immature bone; replaced by bone tissue as the organ grows in length
epiphysis
wide section at each end of a long bone; filled with spongy bone and red marrow
external callus
collar of hyaline cartilage and bone that forms around the outside of a fracture
flat bone
thin and curved bone; serves as a point of attachment for muscles and protects internal organs
fracture hematoma
blood clot that forms at the site of a broken bone
fracture
broken bone
hematopoiesis
production of blood cells, which occurs in the red marrow of the bones
internal callus
fibrocartilaginous matrix, in the endosteal region, between the two ends of a broken bone
intramembranous ossification
process by which bone forms directly from mesenchymal tissue
irregular bone
bone of complex shape; protects internal organs from compressive forces
lacunae
(singular = lacuna) spaces in a bone that house an osteocyte
long bone
cylinder-shaped bone that is longer than it is wide; functions as a lever
medullary cavity
hollow region of the diaphysis; filled with yellow marrow
modeling
process, during bone growth, by which bone is resorbed on one surface of a bone and deposited on another
open reduction
surgical exposure of a bone to reset a fracture
orthopedist
doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating musculoskeletal disorders and injuries
osseous tissue
bone tissue; a hard, dense connective tissue that forms the structural elements of the skeleton
ossification center
cluster of osteoblasts found in the early stages of intramembranous ossification
ossification
(also, osteogenesis) bone formation
osteoblast
cell responsible for forming new bone
osteoclast
cell responsible for resorbing bone
osteocyte
primary cell in mature bone; responsible for maintaining the matrix
osteogenic cell
undifferentiated cell with high mitotic activity; the only bone cells that divide; they differentiate and develop into osteoblasts
osteoid
uncalcified bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts
osteon
(also, Haversian system) basic structural unit of compact bone; made of concentric layers of calcified matrix
osteoporosis
disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass; occurs when the rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of bone formation, a common occurrence as the body ages
perforating canal
(also, Volkmann’s canal) channel that branches off from the central canal and houses vessels and nerves that extend to the periosteum and endosteum
perichondrium
membrane that covers cartilage
periosteum
fibrous membrane covering the outer surface of bone and continuous with ligaments
primary ossification center
region, deep in the periosteal collar, where bone development starts during endochondral ossification
projection
bone markings where part of the surface sticks out above the rest of the surface, where tendons and ligaments attach
red marrow
connective tissue in the interior cavity of a bone where hematopoiesis takes place
remodeling
process by which osteoclasts resorb old or damaged bone at the same time as and on the same surface where osteoblasts form new bone to replace that which is resorbed
secondary ossification center
region of bone development in the epiphyses
sesamoid bone
small, round bone embedded in a tendon; protects the tendon from compressive forces
short bone
cube-shaped bone that is approximately equal in length, width, and thickness; provides limited motion
skeletal system
organ system composed of bones and cartilage that provides for movement, support, and protection
spongy bone
(also, cancellous bone) trabeculated osseous tissue that supports shifts in weight distribution
trabeculae
(singular = trabecula) spikes or sections of the lattice-like matrix in spongy bone
yellow marrow
connective tissue in the interior cavity of a bone where fat is stored

Axial Skeleton

alveolar process of the mandible
upper border of mandibular body that contains the lower teeth
alveolar process of the maxilla
curved, inferior margin of the maxilla that supports and anchors the upper teeth
angle of the mandible
rounded corner located at outside margin of the body and ramus junction
angle of the rib
portion of rib with greatest curvature; together, the rib angles form the most posterior extent of the thoracic cage
anterior (ventral) sacral foramen
one of the series of paired openings located on the anterior (ventral) side of the sacrum
anterior arch
anterior portion of the ring-like C1 (atlas) vertebra
anterior cranial fossa
shallowest and most anterior cranial fossa of the cranial base that extends from the frontal bone to the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone
anterior longitudinal ligament
ligament that runs the length of the vertebral column, uniting the anterior aspects of the vertebral bodies
anulus fibrosus
tough, fibrous outer portion of an intervertebral disc, which is strongly anchored to the bodies of the adjacent vertebrae
appendicular skeleton
all bones of the upper and lower limbs, plus the girdle bones that attach each limb to the axial skeleton
articular tubercle
smooth ridge located on the inferior skull, immediately anterior to the mandibular fossa
atlas
first cervical (C1) vertebra
axial skeleton
central, vertical axis of the body, including the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage
axis
second cervical (C2) vertebra
body of the rib
shaft portion of a rib
brain case
portion of the skull that contains and protects the brain, consisting of the eight bones that form the cranial base and rounded upper skull
calvaria
(also, skullcap) rounded top of the skull
carotid canal
zig-zag tunnel providing passage through the base of the skull for the internal carotid artery to the brain; begins anteromedial to the styloid process and terminates in the middle cranial cavity, near the posterior-lateral base of the sella turcica
cervical curve
posteriorly concave curvature of the cervical vertebral column region; a secondary curve of the vertebral column
cervical vertebrae
seven vertebrae numbered as C1–C7 that are located in the neck region of the vertebral column
clavicular notch
paired notches located on the superior-lateral sides of the sternal manubrium, for articulation with the clavicle
coccyx
small bone located at inferior end of the adult vertebral column that is formed by the fusion of four coccygeal vertebrae; also referred to as the “tailbone”
condylar process of the mandible
thickened upward projection from posterior margin of mandibular ramus
condyle
oval-shaped process located at the top of the condylar process of the mandible
coronal suture
joint that unites the frontal bone to the right and left parietal bones across the top of the skull
coronoid process of the mandible
flattened upward projection from the anterior margin of the mandibular ramus
costal cartilage
hyaline cartilage structure attached to the anterior end of each rib that provides for either direct or indirect attachment of most ribs to the sternum
costal facet
site on the lateral sides of a thoracic vertebra for articulation with the head of a rib
costal groove
shallow groove along the inferior margin of a rib that provides passage for blood vessels and a nerve
cranial cavity
interior space of the skull that houses the brain
cranium
skull
cribriform plate
small, flattened areas with numerous small openings, located to either side of the midline in the floor of the anterior cranial fossa; formed by the ethmoid bone
crista galli
small upward projection located at the midline in the floor of the anterior cranial fossa; formed by the ethmoid bone
dens
bony projection (odontoid process) that extends upward from the body of the C2 (axis) vertebra
ear ossicles
three small bones located in the middle ear cavity that serve to transmit sound vibrations to the inner ear
ethmoid air cell
one of several small, air-filled spaces located within the lateral sides of the ethmoid bone, between the orbit and upper nasal cavity
ethmoid bone
unpaired bone that forms the roof and upper, lateral walls of the nasal cavity, portions of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa and medial wall of orbit, and the upper portion of the nasal septum
external acoustic meatus
ear canal opening located on the lateral side of the skull
external occipital protuberance
small bump located at the midline on the posterior skull
facet
small, flattened area on a bone for an articulation (joint) with another bone, or for muscle attachment
facial bones
fourteen bones that support the facial structures and form the upper and lower jaws and the hard palate
false ribs
vertebrochondral ribs 8–12 whose costal cartilage either attaches indirectly to the sternum via the costal cartilage of the next higher rib or does not attach to the sternum at all
floating ribs
vertebral ribs 11–12 that do not attach to the sternum or to the costal cartilage of another rib
fontanelle
expanded area of fibrous connective tissue that separates the brain case bones of the skull prior to birth and during the first year after birth
foramen lacerum
irregular opening in the base of the skull, located inferior to the exit of carotid canal
foramen magnum
large opening in the occipital bone of the skull through which the spinal cord emerges and the vertebral arteries enter the cranium
foramen ovale of the middle cranial fossa
oval-shaped opening in the floor of the middle cranial fossa
foramen rotundum
round opening in the floor of the middle cranial fossa, located between the superior orbital fissure and foramen ovale
foramen spinosum
small opening in the floor of the middle cranial fossa, located lateral to the foramen ovale
frontal bone
unpaired bone that forms forehead, roof of orbit, and floor of anterior cranial fossa
frontal sinus
air-filled space within the frontal bone; most anterior of the paranasal sinuses
glabella
slight depression of frontal bone, located at the midline between the eyebrows
greater wings of sphenoid bone
lateral projections of the sphenoid bone that form the anterior wall of the middle cranial fossa and an area of the lateral skull
hard palate
bony structure that forms the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity, formed by the palatine process of the maxillary bones and the horizontal plate of the palatine bones
head of the rib
posterior end of a rib that articulates with the bodies of thoracic vertebrae
horizontal plate
medial extension from the palatine bone that forms the posterior quarter of the hard palate
hyoid bone
small, U-shaped bone located in upper neck that does not contact any other bone
hypoglossal canal
paired openings that pass anteriorly from the anterior-lateral margins of the foramen magnum deep to the occipital condyles
hypophyseal (pituitary) fossa
shallow depression on top of the sella turcica that houses the pituitary (hypophyseal) gland
inferior articular process
bony process that extends downward from the vertebral arch of a vertebra that articulates with the superior articular process of the next lower vertebra
inferior nasal concha
one of the paired bones that project from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity to form the largest and most inferior of the nasal conchae
infraorbital foramen
opening located on anterior skull, below the orbit
infratemporal fossa
space on lateral side of skull, below the level of the zygomatic arch and deep (medial) to the ramus of the mandible
internal acoustic meatus
opening into petrous ridge, located on the lateral wall of the posterior cranial fossa
intervertebral disc
structure located between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae that strongly joins the vertebrae; provides padding, weight bearing ability, and enables vertebral column movements
intervertebral foramen
opening located between adjacent vertebrae for exit of a spinal nerve
jugular (suprasternal) notch
shallow notch located on superior surface of sternal manubrium
jugular foramen
irregularly shaped opening located in the lateral floor of the posterior cranial cavity
kyphosis
(also, humpback or hunchback) excessive posterior curvature of the thoracic vertebral column region
lacrimal bone
paired bones that contribute to the anterior-medial wall of each orbit
lacrimal fossa
shallow depression in the anterior-medial wall of the orbit, formed by the lacrimal bone that gives rise to the nasolacrimal canal
lambdoid suture
inverted V-shaped joint that unites the occipital bone to the right and left parietal bones on the posterior skull
lamina
portion of the vertebral arch on each vertebra that extends between the transverse and spinous process
lateral pterygoid plate
paired, flattened bony projections of the sphenoid bone located on the inferior skull, lateral to the medial pterygoid plate
lateral sacral crest
paired irregular ridges running down the lateral sides of the posterior sacrum that was formed by the fusion of the transverse processes from the five sacral vertebrae
lesser wings of the sphenoid bone
lateral extensions of the sphenoid bone that form the bony lip separating the anterior and middle cranial fossae
ligamentum flavum
series of short ligaments that unite the lamina of adjacent vertebrae
lingula
small flap of bone located on the inner (medial) surface of mandibular ramus, next to the mandibular foramen
lordosis
(also, swayback) excessive anterior curvature of the lumbar vertebral column region
lumbar curve
posteriorly concave curvature of the lumbar vertebral column region; a secondary curve of the vertebral column
lumbar vertebrae
five vertebrae numbered as L1–L5 that are located in lumbar region (lower back) of the vertebral column
mandible
unpaired bone that forms the lower jaw bone; the only moveable bone of the skull
mandibular foramen
opening located on the inner (medial) surface of the mandibular ramus
mandibular fossa
oval depression located on the inferior surface of the skull
mandibular notch
large U-shaped notch located between the condylar process and coronoid process of the mandible
manubrium
expanded, superior portion of the sternum
mastoid process
large bony prominence on the inferior, lateral skull, just behind the earlobe
maxillary bone
(also, maxilla) paired bones that form the upper jaw and anterior portion of the hard palate
maxillary sinus
air-filled space located with each maxillary bone; largest of the paranasal sinuses
medial pterygoid plate
paired, flattened bony projections of the sphenoid bone located on the inferior skull medial to the lateral pterygoid plate; form the posterior portion of the nasal cavity lateral wall
median sacral crest
irregular ridge running down the midline of the posterior sacrum that was formed from the fusion of the spinous processes of the five sacral vertebrae
mental foramen
opening located on the anterior-lateral side of the mandibular body
mental protuberance
inferior margin of anterior mandible that forms the chin
middle cranial fossa
centrally located cranial fossa that extends from the lesser wings of the sphenoid bone to the petrous ridge
middle nasal concha
nasal concha formed by the ethmoid bone that is located between the superior and inferior conchae
mylohyoid line
bony ridge located along the inner (medial) surface of the mandibular body
nasal bone
paired bones that form the base of the nose
nasal cavity
opening through skull for passage of air
nasal conchae
curved bony plates that project from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity; include the superior and middle nasal conchae, which are parts of the ethmoid bone, and the independent inferior nasal conchae bone
nasal septum
flat, midline structure that divides the nasal cavity into halves, formed by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, vomer bone, and septal cartilage
nasolacrimal canal
passage for drainage of tears that extends downward from the medial-anterior orbit to the nasal cavity, terminating behind the inferior nasal conchae
neck of the rib
narrowed region of a rib, next to the rib head
notochord
rod-like structure along dorsal side of the early embryo; largely disappears during later development but does contribute to formation of the intervertebral discs
nuchal ligament
expanded portion of the supraspinous ligament within the posterior neck; interconnects the spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae and attaches to the base of the skull
nucleus pulposus
gel-like central region of an intervertebral disc; provides for padding, weight-bearing, and movement between adjacent vertebrae
occipital bone
unpaired bone that forms the posterior portions of the brain case and base of the skull
occipital condyle
paired, oval-shaped bony knobs located on the inferior skull, to either side of the foramen magnum
optic canal
opening spanning between middle cranial fossa and posterior orbit
orbit
bony socket that contains the eyeball and associated muscles
palatine bone
paired bones that form the posterior quarter of the hard palate and a small area in floor of the orbit
palatine process
medial projection from the maxilla bone that forms the anterior three quarters of the hard palate
paranasal sinuses
cavities within the skull that are connected to the conchae that serve to warm and humidify incoming air, produce mucus, and lighten the weight of the skull; consist of frontal, maxillary, sphenoidal, and ethmoidal sinuses
parietal bone
paired bones that form the upper, lateral sides of the skull
pedicle
portion of the vertebral arch that extends from the vertebral body to the transverse process
perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone
downward, midline extension of the ethmoid bone that forms the superior portion of the nasal septum
petrous ridge
petrous portion of the temporal bone that forms a large, triangular ridge in the floor of the cranial cavity, separating the middle and posterior cranial fossae; houses the middle and inner ear structures
posterior (dorsal) sacral foramen
one of the series of paired openings located on the posterior (dorsal) side of the sacrum
posterior arch
posterior portion of the ring-like C1 (atlas) vertebra
posterior cranial fossa
deepest and most posterior cranial fossa; extends from the petrous ridge to the occipital bone
posterior longitudinal ligament
ligament that runs the length of the vertebral column, uniting the posterior sides of the vertebral bodies
primary curve
anteriorly concave curvatures of the thoracic and sacrococcygeal regions that are retained from the original fetal curvature of the vertebral column
pterion
H-shaped suture junction region that unites the frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones on the lateral side of the skull
ramus of the mandible
vertical portion of the mandible
ribs
thin, curved bones of the chest wall
sacral canal
bony tunnel that runs through the sacrum
sacral foramina
series of paired openings for nerve exit located on both the anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects of the sacrum
sacral hiatus
inferior opening and termination of the sacral canal
sacral promontory
anterior lip of the base (superior end) of the sacrum
sacrococcygeal curve
anteriorly concave curvature formed by the sacrum and coccyx; a primary curve of the vertebral column
sacrum
single bone located near the inferior end of the adult vertebral column that is formed by the fusion of five sacral vertebrae; forms the posterior portion of the pelvis
sagittal suture
joint that unites the right and left parietal bones at the midline along the top of the skull
sclerotome
medial portion of a somite consisting of mesenchyme tissue that will give rise to bone, cartilage, and fibrous connective tissues
scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column
secondary curve
posteriorly concave curvatures of the cervical and lumbar regions of the vertebral column that develop after the time of birth
sella turcica
elevated area of sphenoid bone located at midline of the middle cranial fossa
septal cartilage
flat cartilage structure that forms the anterior portion of the nasal septum
skeleton
bones of the body
skull
bony structure that forms the head, face, and jaws, and protects the brain; consists of 22 bones
somite
one of the paired, repeating blocks of tissue located on either side of the notochord in the early embryo
sphenoid bone
unpaired bone that forms the central base of skull
sphenoid sinus
air-filled space located within the sphenoid bone; most posterior of the paranasal sinuses
spinous process
unpaired bony process that extends posteriorly from the vertebral arch of a vertebra
squamous suture
joint that unites the parietal bone to the squamous portion of the temporal bone on the lateral side of the skull
sternal angle
junction line between manubrium and body of the sternum and the site for attachment of the second rib to the sternum
sternum
flattened bone located at the center of the anterior chest
styloid process
downward projecting, elongated bony process located on the inferior aspect of the skull
stylomastoid foramen
opening located on inferior skull, between the styloid process and mastoid process
superior articular process of the sacrum
paired processes that extend upward from the sacrum to articulate (join) with the inferior articular processes from the L5 vertebra
superior articular process
bony process that extends upward from the vertebral arch of a vertebra that articulates with the inferior articular process of the next higher vertebra
superior nasal concha
smallest and most superiorly located of the nasal conchae; formed by the ethmoid bone
superior nuchal line
paired bony lines on the posterior skull that extend laterally from the external occipital protuberance
superior orbital fissure
irregularly shaped opening between the middle cranial fossa and the posterior orbit
supraorbital foramen
opening located on anterior skull, at the superior margin of the orbit
supraorbital margin
superior margin of the orbit
supraspinous ligament
ligament that interconnects the spinous processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae
suture
junction line at which adjacent bones of the skull are united by fibrous connective tissue
temporal bone
paired bones that form the lateral, inferior portions of the skull, with squamous, mastoid, and petrous portions
temporal fossa
shallow space on the lateral side of the skull, above the level of the zygomatic arch
temporal process of the zygomatic bone
short extension from the zygomatic bone that forms the anterior portion of the zygomatic arch
thoracic cage
consists of 12 pairs of ribs and sternum
thoracic curve
anteriorly concave curvature of the thoracic vertebral column region; a primary curve of the vertebral column
thoracic vertebrae
twelve vertebrae numbered as T1–T12 that are located in the thoracic region (upper back) of the vertebral column
transverse foramen
opening found only in the transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
transverse process
paired bony processes that extends laterally from the vertebral arch of a vertebra
true ribs
vertebrosternal ribs 1–7 that attach via their costal cartilage directly to the sternum
tubercle of the rib
small bump on the posterior side of a rib for articulation with the transverse process of a thoracic vertebra
vertebral (spinal) canal
bony passageway within the vertebral column for the spinal cord that is formed by the series of individual vertebral foramina
vertebral arch
bony arch formed by the posterior portion of each vertebra that surrounds and protects the spinal cord
vertebral column
entire sequence of bones that extend from the skull to the tailbone
vertebral foramen
opening associated with each vertebra defined by the vertebral arch that provides passage for the spinal cord
vertebra
individual bone in the neck and back regions of the vertebral column
vomer bone
unpaired bone that forms the inferior and posterior portions of the nasal septum
xiphoid process
small process that forms the inferior tip of the sternum
zygomatic arch
elongated, free-standing arch on the lateral skull, formed anteriorly by the temporal process of the zygomatic bone and posteriorly by the zygomatic process of the temporal bone
zygomatic bone
cheekbone; paired bones that contribute to the lateral orbit and anterior zygomatic arch
zygomatic process of the temporal bone
extension from the temporal bone that forms the posterior portion of the zygomatic arch

 Appendicular Skeleton

acetabulum
large, cup-shaped cavity located on the lateral side of the hip bone; formed by the junction of the ilium, pubis, and ischium portions of the hip bone
acromial end of the clavicle
lateral end of the clavicle that articulates with the acromion of the scapula
acromial process
acromion of the scapula
acromioclavicular joint
articulation between the acromion of the scapula and the acromial end of the clavicle
acromion
flattened bony process that extends laterally from the scapular spine to form the bony tip of the shoulder
adductor tubercle
small, bony bump located on the superior aspect of the medial epicondyle of the femur
anatomical neck
line on the humerus located around the outside margin of the humeral head
ankle joint
joint that separates the leg and foot portions of the lower limb; formed by the articulations between the talus bone of the foot inferiorly, and the distal end of the tibia, medial malleolus of the tibia, and lateral malleolus of the fibula superiorly
anterior border of the tibia
narrow, anterior margin of the tibia that extends inferiorly from the tibial tuberosity
anterior inferior iliac spine
small, bony projection located on the anterior margin of the ilium, below the anterior superior iliac spine
anterior sacroiliac ligament
strong ligament between the sacrum and the ilium portions of the hip bone that supports the anterior side of the sacroiliac joint
anterior superior iliac spine
rounded, anterior end of the iliac crest
arm
region of the upper limb located between the shoulder and elbow joints; contains the humerus bone
base of the metatarsal bone
expanded, proximal end of each metatarsal bone
calcaneus
heel bone; posterior, inferior tarsal bone that forms the heel of the foot
capitate
from the lateral side, the third of the four distal carpal bones; articulates with the scaphoid and lunate proximally, the trapezoid laterally, the hamate medially, and primarily with the third metacarpal distally
capitulum
knob-like bony structure located anteriorly on the lateral, distal end of the humerus
carpal bone
one of the eight small bones that form the wrist and base of the hand; these are grouped as a proximal row consisting of (from lateral to medial) the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform bones, and a distal row containing (from lateral to medial) the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones
carpal tunnel
passageway between the anterior forearm and hand formed by the carpal bones and flexor retinaculum
carpometacarpal joint
articulation between one of the carpal bones in the distal row and a metacarpal bone of the hand
clavicle
collarbone; elongated bone that articulates with the manubrium of the sternum medially and the acromion of the scapula laterally
coracoclavicular ligament
strong band of connective tissue that anchors the coracoid process of the scapula to the lateral clavicle; provides important indirect support for the acromioclavicular joint
coracoid process
short, hook-like process that projects anteriorly and laterally from the superior margin of the scapula
coronoid fossa
depression on the anterior surface of the humerus above the trochlea; this space receives the coronoid process of the ulna when the elbow is maximally flexed
coronoid process of the ulna
projecting bony lip located on the anterior, proximal ulna; forms the inferior margin of the trochlear notch
costoclavicular ligament
band of connective tissue that unites the medial clavicle with the first rib
coxal bone
hip bone
cuboid
tarsal bone that articulates posteriorly with the calcaneus bone, medially with the lateral cuneiform bone, and anteriorly with the fourth and fifth metatarsal bones
deltoid tuberosity
roughened, V-shaped region located laterally on the mid-shaft of the humerus
distal radioulnar joint
articulation between the head of the ulna and the ulnar notch of the radius
distal tibiofibular joint
articulation between the distal fibula and the fibular notch of the tibia
elbow joint
joint located between the upper arm and forearm regions of the upper limb; formed by the articulations between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, and the capitulum of the humerus and the head of the radius
femur
thigh bone; the single bone of the thigh
fibula
thin, non-weight-bearing bone found on the lateral side of the leg
fibular notch
wide groove on the lateral side of the distal tibia for articulation with the fibula at the distal tibiofibular joint
foot
portion of the lower limb located distal to the ankle joint
forearm
region of the upper limb located between the elbow and wrist joints; contains the radius and ulna bones
fossa
(plural = fossae) shallow depression on the surface of a bone
glenohumeral joint
shoulder joint; formed by the articulation between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus
glenoid cavity
(also, glenoid fossa) shallow depression located on the lateral scapula, between the superior and lateral borders
gluteal tuberosity
roughened area on the posterior side of the proximal femur, extending inferiorly from the base of the greater trochanter
greater pelvis
(also, greater pelvic cavity or false pelvis) broad space above the pelvic brim defined laterally by the fan-like portion of the upper ilium
greater sciatic foramen
pelvic opening formed by the greater sciatic notch of the hip bone, the sacrum, and the sacrospinous ligament
greater sciatic notch
large, U-shaped indentation located on the posterior margin of the ilium, superior to the ischial spine
greater trochanter
large, bony expansion of the femur that projects superiorly from the base of the femoral neck
greater tubercle
enlarged prominence located on the lateral side of the proximal humerus
hallux
big toe; digit 1 of the foot
hamate
from the lateral side, the fourth of the four distal carpal bones; articulates with the lunate and triquetrum proximally, the fourth and fifth metacarpals distally, and the capitate laterally
hand
region of the upper limb distal to the wrist joint
head of the femur
rounded, proximal end of the femur that articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone to form the hip joint
head of the fibula
small, knob-like, proximal end of the fibula; articulates with the inferior aspect of the lateral condyle of the tibia
head of the humerus
smooth, rounded region on the medial side of the proximal humerus; articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint
head of the metatarsal bone
expanded, distal end of each metatarsal bone
head of the radius
disc-shaped structure that forms the proximal end of the radius; articulates with the capitulum of the humerus as part of the elbow joint, and with the radial notch of the ulna as part of the proximal radioulnar joint
head of the ulna
small, rounded distal end of the ulna; articulates with the ulnar notch of the distal radius, forming the distal radioulnar joint
hip bone
coxal bone; single bone that forms the pelvic girdle; consists of three areas, the ilium, ischium, and pubis
hip joint
joint located at the proximal end of the lower limb; formed by the articulation between the acetabulum of the hip bone and the head of the femur
hook of the hamate bone
bony extension located on the anterior side of the hamate carpal bone
humerus
single bone of the upper arm
iliac crest
curved, superior margin of the ilium
iliac fossa
shallow depression found on the anterior and medial surfaces of the upper ilium
ilium
superior portion of the hip bone
inferior angle of the scapula
inferior corner of the scapula located where the medial and lateral borders meet
inferior pubic ramus
narrow segment of bone that passes inferiorly and laterally from the pubic body; joins with the ischial ramus to form the ischiopubic ramus
infraglenoid tubercle
small bump or roughened area located on the lateral border of the scapula, near the inferior margin of the glenoid cavity
infraspinous fossa
broad depression located on the posterior scapula, inferior to the spine
intercondylar eminence
irregular elevation on the superior end of the tibia, between the articulating surfaces of the medial and lateral condyles
intercondylar fossa
deep depression on the posterior side of the distal femur that separates the medial and lateral condyles
intermediate cuneiform
middle of the three cuneiform tarsal bones; articulates posteriorly with the navicular bone, medially with the medial cuneiform bone, laterally with the lateral cuneiform bone, and anteriorly with the second metatarsal bone
interosseous border of the fibula
small ridge running down the medial side of the fibular shaft; for attachment of the interosseous membrane between the fibula and tibia
interosseous border of the radius
narrow ridge located on the medial side of the radial shaft; for attachment of the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius bones
interosseous border of the tibia
small ridge running down the lateral side of the tibial shaft; for attachment of the interosseous membrane between the tibia and fibula
interosseous border of the ulna
narrow ridge located on the lateral side of the ulnar shaft; for attachment of the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius
interosseous membrane of the forearm
sheet of dense connective tissue that unites the radius and ulna bones
interosseous membrane of the leg
sheet of dense connective tissue that unites the shafts of the tibia and fibula bones
interphalangeal joint
articulation between adjacent phalanx bones of the hand or foot digits
intertrochanteric crest
short, prominent ridge running between the greater and lesser trochanters on the posterior side of the proximal femur
intertrochanteric line
small ridge running between the greater and lesser trochanters on the anterior side of the proximal femur
intertubercular groove (sulcus)
bicipital groove; narrow groove located between the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus
ischial ramus
bony extension projecting anteriorly and superiorly from the ischial tuberosity; joins with the inferior pubic ramus to form the ischiopubic ramus
ischial spine
pointed, bony projection from the posterior margin of the ischium that separates the greater sciatic notch and lesser sciatic notch
ischial tuberosity
large, roughened protuberance that forms the posteroinferior portion of the hip bone; weight-bearing region of the pelvis when sitting
ischiopubic ramus
narrow extension of bone that connects the ischial tuberosity to the pubic body; formed by the junction of the ischial ramus and inferior pubic ramus
ischium
posteroinferior portion of the hip bone
knee joint
joint that separates the thigh and leg portions of the lower limb; formed by the articulations between the medial and lateral condyles of the femur, and the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia
lateral border of the scapula
diagonally oriented lateral margin of the scapula
lateral condyle of the femur
smooth, articulating surface that forms the distal and posterior sides of the lateral expansion of the distal femur
lateral condyle of the tibia
lateral, expanded region of the proximal tibia that includes the smooth surface that articulates with the lateral condyle of the femur as part of the knee joint
lateral cuneiform
most lateral of the three cuneiform tarsal bones; articulates posteriorly with the navicular bone, medially with the intermediate cuneiform bone, laterally with the cuboid bone, and anteriorly with the third metatarsal bone
lateral epicondyle of the femur
roughened area of the femur located on the lateral side of the lateral condyle
lateral epicondyle of the humerus
small projection located on the lateral side of the distal humerus
lateral malleolus
expanded distal end of the fibula
lateral supracondylar ridge
narrow, bony ridge located along the lateral side of the distal humerus, superior to the lateral epicondyle
leg
portion of the lower limb located between the knee and ankle joints
lesser pelvis
(also, lesser pelvic cavity or true pelvis) narrow space located within the pelvis, defined superiorly by the pelvic brim (pelvic inlet) and inferiorly by the pelvic outlet
lesser sciatic foramen
pelvic opening formed by the lesser sciatic notch of the hip bone, the sacrospinous ligament, and the sacrotuberous ligament
lesser sciatic notch
shallow indentation along the posterior margin of the ischium, inferior to the ischial spine
lesser trochanter
small, bony projection on the medial side of the proximal femur, at the base of the femoral neck
lesser tubercle
small, bony prominence located on anterior side of the proximal humerus
lunate
from the lateral side, the second of the four proximal carpal bones; articulates with the radius proximally, the capitate and hamate distally, the scaphoid laterally, and the triquetrum medially
medial border of the scapula
elongated, medial margin of the scapula
medial condyle of the femur
smooth, articulating surface that forms the distal and posterior sides of the medial expansion of the distal femur
medial condyle of the tibia
medial, expanded region of the proximal tibia that includes the smooth surface that articulates with the medial condyle of the femur as part of the knee joint
medial cuneiform
most medial of the three cuneiform tarsal bones; articulates posteriorly with the navicular bone, laterally with the intermediate cuneiform bone, and anteriorly with the first and second metatarsal bones
medial epicondyle of the femur
roughened area of the distal femur located on the medial side of the medial condyle
medial epicondyle of the humerus
enlarged projection located on the medial side of the distal humerus
medial malleolus
bony expansion located on the medial side of the distal tibia
metacarpal bone
one of the five long bones that form the palm of the hand; numbered 1–5, starting on the lateral (thumb) side of the hand
metacarpophalangeal joint
articulation between the distal end of a metacarpal bone of the hand and a proximal phalanx bone of the thumb or a finger
metatarsal bone
one of the five elongated bones that forms the anterior half of the foot; numbered 1–5, starting on the medial side of the foot
metatarsophalangeal joint
articulation between a metatarsal bone of the foot and the proximal phalanx bone of a toe
midcarpal joint
articulation between the proximal and distal rows of the carpal bones; contributes to movements of the hand at the wrist
navicular
tarsal bone that articulates posteriorly with the talus bone, laterally with the cuboid bone, and anteriorly with the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiform bones
neck of the femur
narrowed region located inferior to the head of the femur
neck of the radius
narrowed region immediately distal to the head of the radius
obturator foramen
large opening located in the anterior hip bone, between the pubis and ischium regions
olecranon fossa
large depression located on the posterior side of the distal humerus; this space receives the olecranon process of the ulna when the elbow is fully extended
olecranon process
expanded posterior and superior portions of the proximal ulna; forms the bony tip of the elbow
patella
kneecap; the largest sesamoid bone of the body; articulates with the distal femur
patellar surface
smooth groove located on the anterior side of the distal femur, between the medial and lateral condyles; site of articulation for the patella
pectineal line
narrow ridge located on the superior surface of the superior pubic ramus
pectoral girdle
shoulder girdle; the set of bones, consisting of the scapula and clavicle, which attaches each upper limb to the axial skeleton
pelvic brim
pelvic inlet; the dividing line between the greater and lesser pelvic regions; formed by the superior margin of the pubic symphysis, the pectineal lines of each pubis, the arcuate lines of each ilium, and the sacral promontory
pelvic girdle
hip girdle; consists of a single hip bone, which attaches a lower limb to the sacrum of the axial skeleton
pelvic inlet
pelvic brim
pelvic outlet
inferior opening of the lesser pelvis; formed by the inferior margin of the pubic symphysis, right and left ischiopubic rami and sacrotuberous ligaments, and the tip of the coccyx
pelvis
ring of bone consisting of the right and left hip bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx
phalanx bone of the foot
(plural = phalanges) one of the 14 bones that form the toes; these include the proximal and distal phalanges of the big toe, and the proximal, middle, and distal phalanx bones of toes two through five
phalanx bone of the hand
(plural = phalanges) one of the 14 bones that form the thumb and fingers; these include the proximal and distal phalanges of the thumb, and the proximal, middle, and distal phalanx bones of the fingers two through five
pisiform
from the lateral side, the fourth of the four proximal carpal bones; articulates with the anterior surface of the triquetrum
pollex
(also, thumb) digit 1 of the hand
posterior inferior iliac spine
small, bony projection located at the inferior margin of the auricular surface on the posterior ilium
posterior sacroiliac ligament
strong ligament spanning the sacrum and ilium of the hip bone that supports the posterior side of the sacroiliac joint
posterior superior iliac spine
rounded, posterior end of the iliac crest
proximal radioulnar joint
articulation formed by the radial notch of the ulna and the head of the radius
proximal tibiofibular joint
articulation between the head of the fibula and the inferior aspect of the lateral condyle of the tibia
pubic arch
bony structure formed by the pubic symphysis, and the bodies and inferior pubic rami of the right and left pubic bones
pubic body
enlarged, medial portion of the pubis region of the hip bone
pubic symphysis
joint formed by the articulation between the pubic bodies of the right and left hip bones
pubic tubercle
small bump located on the superior aspect of the pubic body
pubis
anterior portion of the hip bone
radial fossa
small depression located on the anterior humerus above the capitulum; this space receives the head of the radius when the elbow is maximally flexed
radial notch of the ulna
small, smooth area on the lateral side of the proximal ulna; articulates with the head of the radius as part of the proximal radioulnar joint
radial tuberosity
oval-shaped, roughened protuberance located on the medial side of the proximal radius
radiocarpal joint
wrist joint, located between the forearm and hand regions of the upper limb; articulation formed proximally by the distal end of the radius and the fibrocartilaginous pad that unites the distal radius and ulna bone, and distally by the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum carpal bones
radius
bone located on the lateral side of the forearm
sacroiliac joint
joint formed by the articulation between the auricular surfaces of the sacrum and ilium
scaphoid
from the lateral side, the first of the four proximal carpal bones; articulates with the radius proximally, the trapezoid, trapezium, and captitate distally, and the lunate medially
scapula
shoulder blade bone located on the posterior side of the shoulder
shaft of the femur
cylindrically shaped region that forms the central portion of the femur
shaft of the fibula
elongated, slender portion located between the expanded ends of the fibula
shaft of the humerus
narrow, elongated, central region of the humerus
shaft of the radius
narrow, elongated, central region of the radius
shaft of the tibia
triangular-shaped, central portion of the tibia
shaft of the ulna
narrow, elongated, central region of the ulna
spine of the scapula
prominent ridge passing mediolaterally across the upper portion of the posterior scapular surface
sternal end of the clavicle
medial end of the clavicle that articulates with the manubrium of the sternum
sternoclavicular joint
articulation between the manubrium of the sternum and the sternal end of the clavicle; forms the only bony attachment between the pectoral girdle of the upper limb and the axial skeleton
styloid process of the radius
pointed projection located on the lateral end of the distal radius
styloid process of the ulna
short, bony projection located on the medial end of the distal ulna
subpubic angle
inverted V-shape formed by the convergence of the right and left ischiopubic rami; this angle is greater than 80 degrees in females and less than 70 degrees in males
subscapular fossa
broad depression located on the anterior (deep) surface of the scapula
superior angle of the scapula
corner of the scapula between the superior and medial borders of the scapula
superior border of the scapula
superior margin of the scapula
superior pubic ramus
narrow segment of bone that passes laterally from the pubic body to join the ilium
suprascapular notch
small notch located along the superior border of the scapula, medial to the coracoid process
supraspinous fossa
narrow depression located on the posterior scapula, superior to the spine
surgical neck
region of the humerus where the expanded, proximal end joins with the narrower shaft
talus
tarsal bone that articulates superiorly with the tibia and fibula at the ankle joint; also articulates inferiorly with the calcaneus bone and anteriorly with the navicular bone
tarsal bone
one of the seven bones that make up the posterior foot; includes the calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuboid, medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, and lateral cuneiform bones
thigh
portion of the lower limb located between the hip and knee joints
tibial tuberosity
elevated area on the anterior surface of the proximal tibia
tibia
shin bone; the large, weight-bearing bone located on the medial side of the leg
trapezium
from the lateral side, the first of the four distal carpal bones; articulates with the scaphoid proximally, the first and second metacarpals distally, and the trapezoid medially
trapezoid
from the lateral side, the second of the four distal carpal bones; articulates with the scaphoid proximally, the second metacarpal distally, the trapezium laterally, and the capitate medially
triquetrum
from the lateral side, the third of the four proximal carpal bones; articulates with the lunate laterally, the hamate distally, and has a facet for the pisiform
trochlear notch
large, C-shaped depression located on the anterior side of the proximal ulna; articulates at the elbow with the trochlea of the humerus
trochlea
pulley-shaped region located medially at the distal end of the humerus; articulates at the elbow with the trochlear notch of the ulna
ulnar notch of the radius
shallow, smooth area located on the medial side of the distal radius; articulates with the head of the ulna at the distal radioulnar joint
ulnar tuberosity
roughened area located on the anterior, proximal ulna inferior to the coronoid process
ulna
bone located on the medial side of the forearm

 

Joints

abduction
movement in the coronal plane that moves a limb laterally away from the body; spreading of the fingers
adduction
movement in the coronal plane that moves a limb medially toward or across the midline of the body; bringing fingers together
amphiarthrosis
slightly mobile joint
anterior cruciate ligament
intracapsular ligament of the knee; extends from anterior, superior surface of the tibia to the inner aspect of the lateral condyle of the femur; resists hyperextension of knee
anterior talofibular ligament
intrinsic ligament located on the lateral side of the ankle joint, between talus bone and lateral malleolus of fibula; supports talus at the talocrural joint and resists excess inversion of the foot
articular capsule
connective tissue structure that encloses the joint cavity of a synovial joint
articular cartilage
thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the articulating surfaces of bones at a synovial joint
articular disc
meniscus; a fibrocartilage structure found between the bones of some synovial joints; provides padding or smooths movements between the bones; strongly unites the bones together
articulation
joint of the body
atlanto-occipital joint
articulation between the occipital condyles of the skull and the superior articular processes of the atlas (C1 vertebra)
atlantoaxial joint
series of three articulations between the atlas (C1) vertebra and the axis (C2) vertebra, consisting of the joints between the inferior articular processes of C1 and the superior articular processes of C2, and the articulation between the dens of C2 and the anterior arch of C1
ball-and-socket joint
synovial joint formed between the spherical end of one bone (the ball) that fits into the depression of a second bone (the socket); found at the hip and shoulder joints; functionally classified as a multiaxial joint
biaxial joint
type of diarthrosis; a joint that allows for movements within two planes (two axes)
bursa
connective tissue sac containing lubricating fluid that prevents friction between adjacent structures, such as skin and bone, tendons and bone, or between muscles
cartilaginous joint
joint at which the bones are united by hyaline cartilage (synchondrosis) or fibrocartilage (symphysis)
circumduction
circular motion of the arm, thigh, hand, thumb, or finger that is produced by the sequential combination of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction
condyloid joint
synovial joint in which the shallow depression at the end of one bone receives a rounded end from a second bone or a rounded structure formed by two bones; found at the metacarpophalangeal joints of the fingers or the radiocarpal joint of the wrist; functionally classified as a biaxial joint
depression
downward (inferior) motion of the scapula or mandible
diarthrosis
freely mobile joint
dorsiflexion
movement at the ankle that brings the top of the foot toward the anterior leg
elbow joint
humeroulnar joint
elevation
upward (superior) motion of the scapula or mandible
eversion
foot movement involving the intertarsal joints of the foot in which the bottom of the foot is turned laterally, away from the midline
extension
movement in the sagittal plane that increases the angle of a joint (straightens the joint); motion involving posterior bending of the vertebral column or returning to the upright position from a flexed position
extrinsic ligament
ligament located outside of the articular capsule of a synovial joint
fibrous joint
joint where the articulating areas of the adjacent bones are connected by fibrous connective tissue
fibular collateral ligament
extrinsic ligament of the knee joint that spans from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of the fibula; resists hyperextension and rotation of the extended knee
flexion
movement in the sagittal plane that decreases the angle of a joint (bends the joint); motion involving anterior bending of the vertebral column
fontanelles
expanded areas of fibrous connective tissue that separate the braincase bones of the skull prior to birth and during the first year after birth
glenohumeral joint
shoulder joint; articulation between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and head of the humerus; multiaxial ball-and-socket joint that allows for flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction, and medial/lateral rotation of the humerus
glenohumeral ligament
one of the three intrinsic ligaments of the shoulder joint that strengthen the anterior articular capsule
glenoid labrum
lip of fibrocartilage located around the outside margin of the glenoid cavity of the scapula
gomphosis
type of fibrous joint in which the root of a tooth is anchored into its bony jaw socket by strong periodontal ligaments
hinge joint
synovial joint at which the convex surface of one bone articulates with the concave surface of a second bone; includes the elbow, knee, ankle, and interphalangeal joints; functionally classified as a uniaxial joint
humeroulnar joint
articulation between the trochlea of humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna; uniaxial hinge joint that allows for flexion/extension of the forearm
hyperextension
excessive extension of joint, beyond the normal range of movement
hyperflexion
excessive flexion of joint, beyond the normal range of movement
inferior rotation
movement of the scapula during upper limb adduction in which the glenoid cavity of the scapula moves in a downward direction as the medial end of the scapular spine moves in an upward direction
interosseous membrane
wide sheet of fibrous connective tissue that fills the gap between two parallel bones, forming a syndesmosis; found between the radius and ulna of the forearm and between the tibia and fibula of the leg
intracapsular ligament
ligament that is located within the articular capsule of a synovial joint
intrinsic ligament
ligament that is fused to or incorporated into the wall of the articular capsule of a synovial joint
inversion
foot movement involving the intertarsal joints of the foot in which the bottom of the foot is turned toward the midline
ischiofemoral ligament
intrinsic ligament spanning from the ischium of the hip bone to the femur, on the posterior aspect of the hip joint
joint cavity
space enclosed by the articular capsule of a synovial joint that is filled with synovial fluid and contains the articulating surfaces of the adjacent bones
joint interzone
site within a growing embryonic limb bud that will become a synovial joint
joint
site at which two or more bones or bone and cartilage come together (articulate)
lateral (external) rotation
movement of the arm at the shoulder joint or the thigh at the hip joint that moves the anterior surface of the limb away from the midline of the body
lateral excursion
side-to-side movement of the mandible away from the midline, toward either the right or left side
lateral flexion
bending of the neck or body toward the right or left side
lateral meniscus
C-shaped fibrocartilage articular disc located at the knee, between the lateral condyle of the femur and the lateral condyle of the tibia
lateral tibiofemoral joint
portion of the knee consisting of the articulation between the lateral condyle of the tibia and the lateral condyle of the femur; allows for flexion/extension at the knee
ligament of the head of the femur
intracapsular ligament that runs from the acetabulum of the hip bone to the head of the femur
ligament
strong band of dense connective tissue spanning between bones
medial (internal) rotation
movement of the arm at the shoulder joint or the thigh at the hip joint that brings the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body
medial excursion
side-to-side movement that returns the mandible to the midline
medial meniscus
C-shaped fibrocartilage articular disc located at the knee, between the medial condyle of the femur and medial condyle of the tibia
meniscus
articular disc
multiaxial joint
type of diarthrosis; a joint that allows for movements within three planes (three axes)
opposition
thumb movement that brings the tip of the thumb in contact with the tip of a finger
patellar ligament
ligament spanning from the patella to the anterior tibia; serves as the final attachment for the quadriceps femoris muscle
periodontal ligament
band of dense connective tissue that anchors the root of a tooth into the bony jaw socket
pivot joint
synovial joint at which the rounded portion of a bone rotates within a ring formed by a ligament and an articulating bone; functionally classified as uniaxial joint
plane joint
synovial joint formed between the flattened articulating surfaces of adjacent bones; functionally classified as a multiaxial joint
plantar flexion
foot movement at the ankle in which the heel is lifted off of the ground
posterior cruciate ligament
intracapsular ligament of the knee; extends from the posterior, superior surface of the tibia to the inner aspect of the medial condyle of the femur; prevents anterior displacement of the femur when the knee is flexed and weight bearing
pronated position
forearm position in which the palm faces backward
pronation
forearm motion that moves the palm of the hand from the palm forward to the palm backward position
protraction
anterior motion of the scapula or mandible
proximal radioulnar joint
articulation between head of radius and radial notch of ulna; uniaxial pivot joint that allows for rotation of radius during pronation/supination of forearm
pubofemoral ligament
intrinsic ligament spanning from the pubis of the hip bone to the femur, on the anterior-inferior aspect of the hip joint
radial collateral ligament
intrinsic ligament on the lateral side of the elbow joint; runs from the lateral epicondyle of humerus to merge with the annular ligament
reposition
movement of the thumb from opposition back to the anatomical position (next to index finger)
retraction
posterior motion of the scapula or mandible
rotation
movement of a bone around a central axis (atlantoaxial joint) or around its long axis (proximal radioulnar joint; shoulder or hip joint); twisting of the vertebral column resulting from the summation of small motions between adjacent vertebrae
rotator cuff
strong connective tissue structure formed by the fusion of four rotator cuff muscle tendons to the articular capsule of the shoulder joint; surrounds and supports superior, anterior, lateral, and posterior sides of the humeral head
saddle joint
synovial joint in which the articulating ends of both bones are convex and concave in shape, such as at the first carpometacarpal joint at the base of the thumb; functionally classified as a biaxial joint
subtalar joint
articulation between the talus and calcaneus bones of the foot; allows motions that contribute to inversion/eversion of the foot
superior rotation
movement of the scapula during upper limb abduction in which the glenoid cavity of the scapula moves in an upward direction as the medial end of the scapular spine moves in a downward direction
supinated position
forearm position in which the palm faces anteriorly (anatomical position)
supination
forearm motion that moves the palm of the hand from the palm backward to the palm forward position
suture
fibrous joint that connects the bones of the skull (except the mandible); an immobile joint (synarthrosis)
symphysis
type of cartilaginous joint where the bones are joined by fibrocartilage
synarthrosis
immobile or nearly immobile joint
synchondrosis
type of cartilaginous joint where the bones are joined by hyaline cartilage
syndesmosis
type of fibrous joint in which two separated, parallel bones are connected by an interosseous membrane
synovial fluid
thick, lubricating fluid that fills the interior of a synovial joint
synovial joint
joint at which the articulating surfaces of the bones are located within a joint cavity formed by an articular capsule
synovial membrane
thin layer that lines the inner surface of the joint cavity at a synovial joint; produces the synovial fluid
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone of the skull; allows for depression/elevation (opening/closing of mouth), protraction/retraction, and side-to-side motions of the mandible
tendon sheath
connective tissue that surrounds a tendon at places where the tendon crosses a joint; contains a lubricating fluid to prevent friction and allow smooth movements of the tendon
tendon
dense connective tissue structure that anchors a muscle to bone
uniaxial joint
type of diarthrosis; joint that allows for motion within only one plane (one axis)