Rhetorical Moves and Ways to Integrate Sources

Supporting Your Claims and Reasoning

“Author X demonstrates _____________”
“The results of Author X’s study show _______________”
“Author Y’s research establishes _______________”
“Study Z affirms _____________”

Acknowledgement and Response

“Even though ____________, Author X found _____________”
“While ______________ presents important complications, Author X and Author Y have determined ____________________”

Relationships between the Content of Different Sources

“Author Y points out ________________, which calls into question Author X’s assertion that ________________.”
“Author X, Author Y, and Author Z consistently found ________________”
“Author X’s view of ______________ contrasts with that of Author Y in ___________________”

Cause and Effect

“Since Author X documents _____________, it follows that __________________”
“Author Y definitively negates ______________. Consequently, ______________”

Building on or Adding to Source Material

“Based on Author Y’s findings __________________”
“Because of the results of Studies Z and A, other research should ______________________”