Researchers have developed several different frameworks or models for how reflective writing can be structured. John Driscoll used Terry Borton’s three stem questions to devise The Borton Framework pictured below.
The DEAL model structures reflective writing through a three-stage approach of description, examination, and articulation of learning.
The DIEP model (Boud, Keogh & Walker,1985) incorporates aspects of both the Borton and DEAL frameworks with its emphasis on significance and future action.
Each of the models speaks to the reflective writer’s tasks: briefly describing an event or experience; analyzing the significance and value of the experience in terms of larger theory or practice; and forecasting how the learning might be useful in other situations.
- Driscoll J (1994) Reflective practice for practise - a framework of structured reflection for clinical areas. Senior Nurse 14 (1):47–50 ↵
- Ash, S.L, Clayton, P.H., & Moses, M.G. (2009). Learning through critical reflection: A tutorial for service-learning students (instructor version). Raleigh, NC. ↵
- Boud, D.; Keogh, R.; Walker, D. (Eds) (1985) Reflection: turning experience into learning. London: Kogan Page ↵