Glossary

Analogy

A figure of speech that essentially compares something that your audience knows and understands with something new and different.

Preview

Sometimes called a road map, a preview is a brief oral outline in which the speaker clearly and concisely states the main points of the speech.

Internal Credibility

This is a form of credibility based on attributes that are largely controlled by a speaker, such as appearance, confidence, charisma, trustworthiness, and speaking ability.

Expectancy Violation

Expectancy violations occur when people engage in behavior that is unexpected or inappropriate for the situation.

External Credibility

This is a form of credibility based on attributes that a speaker can “borrow,” such as using credible sources and referring to credible and popular people and events.

Primacy Effect

According to this principle, audiences are likely to remember what they hear or read first.

Recency Effect

According to this principle, audiences are likely to remember what they hear or read last.

Rhetorical Question

When a speaker asks a question that is not meant to be answered outloud, or a question for which the audience already knows the answer. This is often used as a way to get an audience to think about the topic.

Thesis

One sentence or statement that succinctly and accurately lets the audience know what the speech will be about and what the speaker plans to accomplish in the speech.