A proposition supported by one or more reasons or pieces of evidence.
Foundational evidence which supports a claim, such as examples, statistics, or testimony.
A speech designed to explain a cause-effect relationship between two phenomena.
The process of formulating an argument by examining related events to determine which one caused the other.
The proposition you want the
audience to accept.
A process whereby thoughts or behaviors are altered through deceptive or harmful methods.
Preliminary evidence on which a claim is based.
The process of formulating an argument by moving from a general premise to a specific conclusion.
Statistical information that reflects the make-up of a group, often including age, sex, ethnic or cultural background, socioeconomic status, religion, and political affiliation.
Direct Method Pattern
A speech designed to present a claim with a list of several supporting pieces of data.
The audience’s perception of a speaker’s credibility and moral character.
A set of standards for judging the merit of a proposition.
Errors in reasoning that occur when a speaker fails to use appropriate or applicable evidence for their argument.
An audience that is opposed to the speaker or to the persuasive proposition.
A connection that is fostered between the speaker and their audience by highlighting shared attributes or attitudes.
The process of formulating an argument by moving from specific instances to a generalization.
The logical means of proving an argument.
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
An organizational pattern that attempts to convince the audience to respond to a need that is delineated in the speech through five sequential steps.
An audience that is neither open nor opposed to the persuasive proposition.
The use of emotional appeals to persuade an audience.
The art of influencing or reinforcing people’s beliefs, attitudes, values, or actions.
Speeches which aim to convince an audience to think or behave in a particular way.
Proposition of Fact
An argument that seeks to establish whether something is true or false.
Proposition of Policy
An argument that seeks to establish an appropriate course of action.
Proposition of Value
An argument that seeks to establish the relative worth of something.
An audience that is generally supportive of, or open to, the persuasive proposition.
A speech designed to anticipate the negative response of an audience, to bring attention to the tensions between the two sides of the argument, and to explain why the audience should change their views.
Speeches to Actuate
Persuasive speeches which seek to change or motivate particular behaviors.
Speeches to Convince
Persuasive speeches which seek to establish agreement about a particular topic.
The current situation.
Reasoning beginning with a major premise, then moving to a minor premise, before establishing a specific claim.
The (often unstated) connection between data and claim.