Critical Thinking & Reasoning: Objectives and Outline

Chapter 6: Critical Thinking & Reasoning

By Terri Russ, J.D., Ph.D.

Saint Mary’s College, Notre Dame, IN



After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Understand and explain the importance of critical thinking
  • Identify the core skills associated with critical thinking
  • Demonstrate the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning
  • Construct a logically sound and well-reasoned argument
  • Avoid the various fallacies that can arise through the misuse of logic
  • Apply chapter concepts in final questions and activities

Chapter Outline

  • Introduction
  • Critical Thinking
    • Critical Thinking Defined
    • Critical Thinking Traits and Skills
    • The Value of Critical Thinking
  • Logic and the Role of Arguments
    • Defining Arguments
    • Defining Deduction
    • Defining Induction
  • Understanding Fallacies
  • Formal Fallacies
    • Bad Reasons Fallacy
    • Masked Man Fallacy
    • Fallacy of Quantitative Logic
  • Informal Fallacies
    • Accident Fallacy
    • Ad Hominem
    • Fallacy of Ambiguity
    • Fallacies of Appeal
    • Begging the Question
    • Black and White Fallacy
    • Fallacy of Composition
    • Fallacy of Division
    • Non causa, pro causa Fallacy
    • Red Herring Fallacy
    • Slippery Slope Fallacy
    • Weak Analogy Fallacy
  • Conclusion
  • Review Questions and Activities
  • Glossary
  • References