Glossary and References


Abstract Word Words that refer to ideas or concepts that are removed from material reality.
Axiology A part of worldview; refers to an individual or group’s value system.
Channel The means through which the message travels.
Communicator The people in the interaction or speech setting who encode and decode messages simultaneously.
Concrete Word A word that describes a tangible object that can be perceived through the senses.
Context The communication rules that govern different physical settings and/or different types of relationships.
Cosmology A part of worldview; refers to the way individuals and groups see themselves in relation to other people and their view of their place in the universe.
Cultural Noise Differences in worldview that cause message interference.
Decoding The process of listening to words and interpreting the words so they are associated with a mental image.
Encoding The process of taking a mental image, associating the image with words, and then speaking those words.
Epistemology A part of worldview; refers to the way an individual or group acquires knowledge or what counts as knowledge.
Listening The psychological process of interpreting and making sense of the messages we receive.
Message The words, nonverbal behavior, or other signals transmitted from one person to another.
Noise Anything that interferes with the message transmission or the encoding and decoding process.
Nonverbal Behavior All of the messages we send — except for the words we say. Can include appearance, eye behavior, kinesics (body movement), proxemics (use of space), touch, time, and smell.
Norms The verbal and nonverbal rules (usually unspoken) that govern communicative behavior.
Ontology A part of worldview; refers to an individual’s or group’s belief system.
Praxeology A part of worldview; refers to the way an individual or group goes about tasks or solving problems.
Psychological Noise Message interference that results from disturbed or excited mental states.
Physiological Noise Message interference that results from bodily discomfort.
Physical Noise Message interference that results when the noise level (as measured in decibels) makes it difficult to hear a message.
Public Speaking The act of delivering a speech in front of a live audience.
Worldview The overall framework through which an individual sees, thinks about, and interprets the world and interacts with it.


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photo credits

p. 1 The Dali Lama Dalai-Lama-talking-to-KD.jpg By Wakan Foundation for the Arts
p. 2 Ronsenbaum talking to woman Michael_Rosenbaum_(4995506953).jpg By Vagueonthehow
p. 2 Alice Walker Alice_Walker_(cropped)1.jpg By Virginia Debolt
p. 5 The Kennedy / Nixon Debate 1960 y_Nixon_Debat_(1960).jpg By the National Park Service
p. 6 FEMA worker talking to woman mmons/1/17/FEMA_-_32747_- _FEMA_Community_Relations_worker_talking_to_a_Ohio_resident.jpg Ficara / FEMA
p. 6 Superfans By HMJD02
p. 7 Hand cyclists at Warrior Games Flickr_-_The_U.S._Army_- _Talking_technique.jpg By U.S. Army
p. 9 Reasons not to like public speaking 348896264/by Christian Heilmann
p. 9 Woman drawing by Jonny Goldstein