|Alliteration||The repetition of the initial sounds of words.|
|Antithesis||Rhetorical strategy that uses contrasting statements in order to make a rhetorical point.|
|Clichés||Phrases or expressions that, because of overuse, have lost their rhetorical power.|
|Colloquialisms||Words or phrases used in informal speech but not typically used in formal speech.|
|Communication||Attempts to reproduce what is in our minds in the minds of our audience.|
|Generic “he” or “man”||Language that uses words such as “he” or “mankind” to refer to the male and female population.|
|Hedges||Powerless phrases such as “I thought we should,” “I sort of think,” or “Maybe we should” that communicate uncertainty.|
|Heterosexist Language||Language that assumes the heterosexual orientation of a person or group of people.|
|Hyperbole||The use of moderate exaggeration for effect.|
|Jargon||The specialized language of a group or profession.|
|Language||The means by which we communicate—a system of symbols we use to form messages.|
|Man-linked Terms||Terms such as “fireman” or “policemen” that incorrectly identify a job as linked only to a male.|
|Metaphors||Comparisons made by speaking of one thing in terms of another.|
|Qualifiers||Powerless words such as “around” or “about” that make your sentences less definitive.|
|Regionalisms||Customary words or phrases used in different geographic regions.|
|Sexist Language||Language that unnecessarily identifies sex or linguistically erases females through the use of man- linked terms and/or the use of “he” or “man” as generics.|
|Similes||Comparisons made by speaking of one thing in terms of another using the word “like” or “as” to make the comparison.|
|Slang||Type of language that most people understand but that is not considered acceptable in formal or polite conversation.|
|Spotlighting||Language such as “male nurse” that suggests a person is deviating from the “normal” person who would do a particular job and implies that someone’s sex is relevant to a particular job.|
|Tag Questions||Powerless language exemplified by ending statements with questions such as “Don’t you think?” or “Don’t you agree?”|
About.com (2011). Bushisms—U.S. President proves how difficult English really is! Retrieved from. http://esl.about.com/library/weekly/aa032301a.htm
Gamble, T. K. & Gamble, M. W. (2003). The gender communication connection. New York: Houghton-Mifflin.
Time.com (1981, February 23). “Haigledygook and secretaryspeak.” Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,949069,00.html
Hamilton, G. (2008). Public speaking for college and career, 8th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Jackson, J. (1984). 1984 Speech at the Democratic National Convention. San Francisco, CA: July 18. Found at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jessejackson1984dnc.htm
King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I Have a Dream [Speech]. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm
Peccei, J. (2003). Language and age. In L. Thomas et. al.,Language, society, and power, 2nd Ed. New York: Routledge.
Spender, D. (1990). Man Made Language. New York: Pandora.
Thomas, L., Wareing, S. Singh, I., Pecci, J. S., Thornborrow, J. & Jones, J. (2003). Language, society, and power: An introduction, 2nd Ed. New York: Routledge.
p. 1 Rail Forum by Michigan Municipal League
p. 2 Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. by Dick DeMarcisco
p. 3 Secretary of State Alexander Haig by University of Texas
p. 4. LAMB Teal Wrap Sweater
p. 5 Goth people by Rama
p. 6 Audience at Next conference by NEXT Berlin
p. 7 “Feminazi” coined by Rush Limbaugh, see
p. 8 Italian Soldier by the Italian Army
p. 9 Married gay couple by John
p. 10 Malalai Joya by AfghanKabul
p. 12 Dilgo Khyentse Yangsi Rinpoche by Wonderlane