Glossary and References


Argument A proposition supported by one or more reasons or pieces of evidence.
Backing Foundational evidence which supports a claim, such as examples, statistics, or testimony.
Causal Pattern A speech designed to explain a cause-effect relationship between two phenomena.
Causal Reasoning The process of formulating an argument by examining related events to determine which one caused the other.
Claim The proposition you want the audience to accept.
Coercion A process whereby thoughts or behaviors are altered through deceptive or harmful methods.
Data Preliminary evidence on which a claim is based.
Deductive Reasoning The process of formulating an argument by moving from a general premise to a specific conclusion.
Demographics Statistical information that reflects the make-up of a group, often including age, sex, ethnic or cultural background, socioeconomic status, religion, and political affiliation.
Direct Method Pattern A speech designed to present a claim with a list of several supporting pieces of data.
Ethos The audience’s perception of a speaker’s credibility and moral character.
Evaluation Criteria A set of standards for judging the merit of a proposition.
Fallacies Errors in reasoning that occur when a speaker fails to use appropriate or applicable evidence for their argument.
Hostile Audience An audience that is opposed to the speaker or to the persuasive proposition.
Identification A connection that is fostered between the speaker and their audience by highlighting shared attributes or attitudes.
Inductive Reasoning The process of formulating an argument by moving from specific instances to a generalization.
Logos The logical means of proving an argument.
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence An organizational pattern that attempts to convince the audience to respond to a need that is delineated in the speech through five sequential steps.
Neutral Audience An audience that is neither open nor opposed to the persuasive proposition.
Pathos The use of emotional appeals to persuade an audience.
Persuasion The art of influencing or reinforcing people’s beliefs, attitudes, values, or actions.
Persuasive Speeches Speeches which aim to convince an audience to think or behave in a particular way.
Proposition of Fact An argument that seeks to establish whether something is true or false.
Proposition of Policy An argument that seeks to establish an appropriate course of action.
Proposition of Value An argument that seeks to establish the relative worth of something.
Receptive Audience An audience that is generally supportive of, or open to, the persuasive proposition.
Refutation Pattern A speech designed to anticipate the negative response of an audience, to bring attention to the tensions between the two sides of the argument, and to explain why the audience should change their views.
Speeches to Actuate Persuasive speeches which seek to change or motivate particular behaviors.
Speeches to Convince Persuasive speeches which seek to establish agreement about a particular topic.
Status Quo The current situation.
Syllogisms Reasoning beginning with a major premise, then moving to a minor premise, before establishing a specific claim.
Warrant The (often unstated) connection between data and claim.


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photo credits

p. 1 Judi Chamberlin by Tom Olin

p. 2 NASUWT officer speaking by Sam Saunders _officer_speaking_at_Bristol_public_sector_pensions_rally_in_ November_2011.jpg

p. 2 Air Pollution by US Environmental Protection Agency p. 3 California Traffic by Downtowngal _10_looking_east_from_Crenshaw_Boulevard.jpg

p. 4 McLaren F1 by Jagvar 1.JPG

p. 4 USPS mailboxes by Erasergirl

p. 5 Jade Raymond by Gamescore Blog

p. 5 Audience member at USO show by .S. Air Force Master Sgt. Adam M. Stump

p. 6 Children at play by Nils Fretwurst

p. 6 Credit cards by Lotus Head cards.jpg

p. 7 Danny Shine by Acapeloahddub %27s_Corner.JPG

p. 8 Dining booth by Wayne Truong

p. 9 Deepwater Horizon fire by US Coast Guard

p. 9 Nancy Brinker by Nancy Brinker

p. 10 Speaker’s Corner speaker by Deborah MacLean Speaker-1987.jpg

p. 12 Roman Rackwitz by Romrack entation.jpg

p. 13 Jeanette Chong-Aruldoss by Terence Lee,_Speakers%27_Corner,_Singapore_-_20110115.jpg

p. 14 Bonnie Franklin by Pattymooney

p. 14 Martin_Kingham by pfctdayelise,_CF MEU.JPG