Glossary and References


Analogy A figure of speech that essentially compares something that your audience knows and understands with something new and different.
Preview Sometimes called a road map, a preview is a brief oral outline in which the speaker clearly and concisely states the main points of the speech.
Internal Credibility This is a form of credibility based on attributes that are largely controlled by a speaker, such as appearance, confidence, charisma, trustworthiness, and speaking ability.
Expectancy Violation Expectancy violations occur when people engage in behavior that is unexpected or inappropriate for the situation.
External Credibility This is a form of credibility based on attributes that a speaker can “borrow,” such as using credible sources and referring to credible and popular people and events.
Primacy Effect According to this principle, audiences are likely to remember what they hear or read first.
Recency Effect According to this principle, audiences are likely to remember what they hear or read last.
Rhetorical Question When a speaker asks a question that is not meant to be answered outloud, or a question for which the audience already knows the answer. This is often used as a way to get an audience to think about the topic.
Thesis One sentence or statement that succinctly and accurately lets the audience know what the speech will be about and what the speaker plans to accomplish in the speech.


Aristotle (1982). The art of rhetoric. (J.H. Freese, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bitzer, L. (1968). The rhetorical situation. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 1, 1-14.

Bono. (2006, February 2). Keynote address at the 54th national prayer breakfast. Speech posted at

Burgoon, J. K. & and Hale, J. L. (1988). Nonverbal expectancy violations: Model elaboration and application to immediacy behaviors. Communication Monographs, 55, (1), 58-79.

Flora, C. (May-June 2004). The once- over you can trust: First impressions. Psychology Today, 37 (3), 60-64.

Fisher, W. (1987). Human communication as narration: Toward a philosophy of reason, value, and action. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

Garlick, R. (1993). Verbal descriptions, communicative encounters and impressions. Communication Quarterly, 41, 394-404.

Glaser, E. (1992, July 14). 1992 Democratic national convention address. Speech posted at

Johnson, L. (1964, May 22). The great society. Speech posted at

Kennedy, T. (1980, August 12). 1980 democratic national convention address. Speech posted at

King, Jr., M. L. (1963, August 28). I have a dream.” Speech posted at

Lehrer, J. (Interviewer) & Stockdale, J. (Interviewee). (1999). Debating our Destiny: Admiral James Stockdale. Retrieved from

Lincoln. A. (1863, November 19). The Gettysburg address. Speech posted at

Reagan, R. (1989, January 11). Farewell address to the nation. Speech posted at

Richards, A. (1998, July 19). Democratic national convention keynote address. Speech posted at

Schenck v. United States, 249 US 47 (1919).

Stockdale, J. (1992, October 19). The 1992 vice presidential debate. Speech posted at

Townsend, C. (2007, February 5). Spring break in Mexico. Speech posted at

photo credits

p. 1 Muhammad Yunnus by schipulites 9/21/48/0/hwac-grameenbank-author-1921480-o.jpg

p. 2 Pueblo Bonito Emerald Bay, Mazatlan by bryce_edwards e266d9adaf3b9eb5ba28008afc&npos=11

p. 4 Abraham Lincoln by U.S. Library of Congress

p. 4 Bono at the National Prayer Breakfast by Paul Morse

p. 5 Kelly McCann by schipulites

p. 5 Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes by National Photo Company

p. 6 President Ronald Reagan by White House Photographic Office

p. 7 Laughing Audience by Damian Buonamico

p. 7 Governor Ann Richards by Kenneth Zirkel

p. 8 Ed Miliband by net_efekt c5a67ac1c988152b8136e3dfa&npos=37

p. 8 Woman with Laptop by Matthew Bowden Woman-typing-on-laptop.jpg

p. 9 LBJ at the University of Michigan Commencement by LBJ Library and Museum

p. 10 President Johnson’s Poverty Tour 1964 by Cecil Saughton

p. 10 Woman speaks at BP Oil Flood Protest New Orleans by Derek Bridges

p. 11 Martin Luther King March on Washington by National Archives and Records Administration

p. 11 Kyung-wha Khang Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights by U.S. Mission Geneva

* All other photos from Microsoft Clipart