Glossary and References


“Breathe and Release” This is a short-cut version of systematic de-sensitization appropriate for public speaking preparation.
Cognitive Restructuring (CR) CR is an internal process through which individuals can deliberately adjust how they perceive an action or experience.
Communication Apprehension CA is the anxiety resulting from fear of public speaking.
Conversant Being conversant is the condition of being able to discuss an issue intelligently with others.
Frame of Reference A frame of reference refers to the context, viewpoint, or set of presuppositions or of evaluative criteria within which a person’s perception and thinking seem always to occur; and which constrains selectively the course and outcome of these activities.
Scrutiny Fear Anxiety resulting from being in a situation where one is being watched or observed, or where one perceives themselves as being watched, is known as scrutiny fear. This sort of anxiety does not necessarily involve interacting with other people.
State-Anxiety State-anxiety is derived from the external situation within which individuals find themselves.
Systematic De-sensitization Systematic de-sensitization is a multi-stage, therapeutic regimen to help patients deal with phobias through coping mechanisms.
Trait-Anxiety Trait-anxiety is anxiety that is aligned with, or a manifestation of, an individual’s personality.


Adler, R. B., (1980). Integrating reticence management into the basic communication curriculum. Communication Education, 29, 215-221.

Beatty, M.J. (1988). Public speaking apprehension, decision-making errors in the selection of speech introduction strategies and adherence to strategy. Communication Education, 37, 297 – 311.

Daly, J. A. & Leth, S. A., (1976), Communication Apprehension and the Personnel Selection Decision, Paper presented at the International Communication Association Convention, Portland, OR. Dwyer, K. & Cruz, A (1998), Communication Apprehension, Personality, and Grades in the Basic Course: Are There Correlations? Communication Research Reports, 15(4), 436 – 444.

Mattick, R. P., Peters, L., & Clarke, J. C., (1989) Exposure and cognitive restructuring for social phobia: A controlled study. Behavior Therapy, 20, 3-23.

McCroskey, J. C., & Anderson, J. (1976). The relationship between communication apprehension and academic achievement among college students, Human Communication Research, 3, 73-81.

McCroskey, J. C. (1977). Oral Communication Apprehension: A summary of recent theory and research. Human Communication Research, 4, 78-96 McCroskey, J. C. (1984).

The communication apprehensive perspective. In J. A. Daly & J. C. McCroskey (Eds.), Avoiding communication: Shyness, reticence, and communication apprehension. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

McCroskey, J. C. (1976) The Problem of Communication Apprehension in the Classroom, Paper prepared for the special edition of Communication, Journal of the Communication Association of the Pacific compiled for the C.A.P. Convention (Kobe, Japan, June 1976).

Menzel, K. E., &Carrell, L. J., (1994). The relationship between preparation and performance in public speaking, Communication Education, 43, 17-26.

Pelias, M. H. (1989). Communication apprehension in basic public speaking texts: An examination of contemporary textbooks. Communication Education, 38(1), 41- 53.

photo credits

p. 1 Rebiya Kadeer ya_Kadeer_Speaking_at_UN_Geneva_(3).jpg By United States Mission Geneva

p. 5 Tuvalu woman speaking lu_woman_speaking_on_the_climate_threat_ her_culture_and_nation_face.jpg By Takver

p. 6 Michael Jordan n_by_Lipofsky_16577.jpg By Steve Lipofsky

p. 6 Woman in wheelchair ns/5/5a/USMC-111028-M-ZU667-58.jpg By Cpl. Andrew D. Thorburn

p. 7 Man speaking le_age.jpg By Måns Sandström

p. 8 98 year-old mother of neuroscience _%2708_Rita_Levi-Montalcini.jpg By Audrey_sel

p. 9 Kellee Santiago e_Santiago_-_Game_Developers_ Conference_2010_-_Day_1.jpg By Official GDC

p. 9 Two men e_Santiago_-_Game_Developers_Conference _2010_-_Day_1.jpg By Official GDC

p. 10. Patrick Norton & Veronica Belmont ck_Norton_Veronica_Belmont_Tekzilla.jpg By Tyler Howarth