Glossary and References


Avocational Presentations Presentations outside of a specific occupation in which one engages.
Cohesiveness The tendency for a group to stick together and remain unified in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives.
Debate A structured argument in which participants speak for or against a pre-announced proposition. The proposition is worded so that one side has the burden of proof, and that same side has the benefit of speaking first and last. Speakers assume an advocacy role and attempt to persuade the audience, not each other.
Delivery Outline An abbreviated version of the preparation outline.
Forum Essentially a question-and-answer format. One or more experts may be questioned by a panel of other experts, journalists, and/or the audience.
Group Communication The process of creating meanings in the minds of others.
Groupthink A faulty sense of agreement that occurs when group members seemingly agree but they primarily want to avoid conflict.
Meeting A structured conversation among a small group of people who gather to accomplish a specific task.
Negotiating Strategy The overall approach you take when you exchange proposals and counterproposals with another person when discussing a settlement to a conflict.
Panel A group of experts publicly discussing a topic among themselves. Individually prepared speeches, if any, are limited to very brief opening statements.
Preparation Outline A full-sentence outline of virtually everything the speaker intends to say. It allows speakers to test the structure, the logic, and persuasive appeals in the speech.
Protocols Mutually agreed upon ways of interacting.
Small Group Consists of three to fifteen people who share a common purpose, feel a sense of belonging to the group, and exert influence on each other.
Small Group Interaction The process by which three or more members of a group exchange verbal and nonverbal messages in an attempt to influence one another.
Social Loafing The decreased effort of each individual member as the number of a group increases.
Speaking Group A collection of three or more speakers who come together to accomplish pre-assigned message content goals.
Symposium A series of short speeches, usually informative, on various aspects of the same general topic. Audience questions often follow.
Team A coordinated group of people organized to work together to achieve a specific, common goal.
Vocational Presentations Presentations related to a specific occupation.


Beebe, S.A. & Masterson, J.T. (2009). Communicating in small groups: Principles and practices (9th edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Beebe, S.A.& Mottet, T.P. (2010). Business and professional communication: Principles and skills for leadership. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Benne, K.D. & Sheats, P. (1948) . Functional roles of group members. Journal of Social Issues 4, 41-49.

Bohn, E. & Jabusch, D. (1982). The effect of four methods of instruction on the use of visual aids in speeches. The Western Journal of Speech Communication, 46, 253-265.

Brilhart, J.K., Galanes, G.J., & Adams, K. (2001). Effective group discussions: Theory and practice (10th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Carron, A. V., Brawley, L. R., & Widmeyer, N. W. (1998). The measurement of cohesiveness in sports groups. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology

deVito, J. 1992, The interpersonal communication handbook (6th edition). New York: Harper Collins.

Fripp. P. (2011). 9 timely tips for pre-presentation preparation. American Salesman, 56, 13-16.

Keller, J.M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories: An overview of their current status (pp. 383-434). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kelley, R.E. (1992). The power of followership: How to create leaders that people want to follow and followers who lead themselves. New York: Doubleday/Currency.

Kowitz, A.C. & Knutson., T.J. (1980). Decision making in small groups: The search for alternatives. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Kreitner, R. & Kinicki, A. (1995). Organizational behaviour (3rd edition). Chicago: Irwin.

Lahiff, J. & Penrose, J. 1997, Business communication: Strategies and skills (5th edition). Princeton, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Sprague, J. & Stuart D. (2005). The speaker’s handbook (7th edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Tubbs, S. L. (1995). A systematic approach to small group interaction (5th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Photo Credits

p. 1 World Diversity Leadership Summit by the United States Navy _Anthony_Junior,_left,_education_programs_manager_for_the_Office_of_Naval_Research,_moderates_a_panel_discussion_ duri.jpg

p. 2 Panel Discussion at LCC by Alyssalevantinecenter

p. 5 Science, Faith and Technology Panel Discussion by David Bruce,_Science,_Faith,_and_Technology.jpg

p. 6 EMP Sound and Vision Panel by Joe Mabel

p. 7 Design Management Institute Conference by Wiki4des

p. 8 International Relief and Development Panel by Crespo Events, LLC

p. 11 German Panel Discussion by Heinrich Boll Stiftung

p. 11 United Nations Conference Bali – by Oxfam International