Introduction to Photography

This advertisement originally appeared in The Cosmopolitan. It reads "Any school-boy or girl can make good pictures with one of the Eastman Kodak Company's Brownie Cameras." Underneath this text is an illustration of a camera with elf-sized people standing beside and sitting on top of the camera. The two on top appear to be focusing the flash. At the top and bottom of the illustration the price one dollar is printed in a large font. Underneath this, in a much smaller print, the product details and film pricing are included.

Figure 1. Eastman Kodak Advertisement for the Brownie Camera, c. 1900

Photography undergoes extraordinary changes in the early part of the twentieth century. This can be said of every other type of visual representation, however, but unique to photography is the transformed perception of the medium. In order to understand this change in perception and use—why photography appealed to artists by the early 1900s, and how it was incorporated into artistic practices by the 1920s—we need to start by looking back.

In the later nineteenth century, photography spread in its popularity, and inventions like the Kodak #1 camera (1888) made it accessible to the upper-middle class consumer; the Kodak Brownie camera, which cost far less, reached the middle class by 1900.

A photograph series capturing the different stages of the running motion of a horse.

Figure 2. Eadweard Muybridge, Thoroughbred bay mare “Annie G.” galloping, Human and Animal Locomotion, plate 626, 1887

In the sciences (and pseudo-sciences), photographs gained credibility as objective evidence because they could document people, places, and events. Photographers like Eadweard Muybridge created portfolios of photographs to measure human and animal locomotion. His celebrated images recorded incremental stages of movement too rapid for the human eye to observe, and his work fulfilled the camera’s promise to enhance, or even create new forms of scientific study.

In the arts, the medium was valued for its replication of exact details, and for its reproduction of artworks for publication. But photographers struggled for artistic recognition throughout the century. It was not until in Paris’s Universal Exposition of 1859, twenty years after the invention of the medium, that photography and “art” (painting, engraving, and sculpture) were displayed next to one another for the first time; separate entrances to each exhibition space, however, preserved a physical and symbolic distinction between the two groups. After all, photographs are mechanically reproduced images: Kodak’s marketing strategy (“You press the button, we do the rest,”) points directly to the “effortlessness” of the medium.

This sepia photograph of a street features horse-drawn transportation as its focal point. A man stands in front of the two horses tending to them. The ground is covered in a thin layer of dirty snow, with drifts of cleaner snow piled along the sides of the road. Hot air is visible as mist coming from the horses’ mouths and bodies.

Figure 3. Alfred Stieglitz, The Terminal, photogravure, 1892

Since art was deemed the product of imagination, skill, and craft, how could a photograph (made with an instrument and light-sensitive chemicals instead of brush and paint) ever be considered its equivalent? And if its purpose was to reproduce details precisely, and from nature, how could photographs be acceptable if negatives were “manipulated,” or if photographs were retouched? Because of these questions, amateur photographers formed casual groups and official societies to challenge such conceptions of the medium. They—along with elite art world figures like Alfred Stieglitz—promoted the late nineteenth-century style of “art photography,” and produced low-contrast, warm-toned images like The Terminal that highlighted the medium’s potential for originality.

So what transforms the perception of photography in the early twentieth century? Social and cultural change—on a massive, unprecedented scale. Like everyone else, artists were radically affected by industrialization, political revolution, trench warfare, airplanes, talking motion pictures, radios, automobiles, and much more—and they wanted to create art that was as radical and “new” as modern life itself. If we consider the work of the Cubists and Futurists, we often think of their works in terms of simultaneity and speed, destruction and reconstruction. Dadaists, too, challenged the boundaries of traditional art with performances, poetry, installations, and photomontage that use the materials of everyday culture instead of paint, ink, canvas, or bronze.

A three part image. Part 1, Still Life with Chair Caning. The painting over the chair caning is composed of abstract shapes and the letters J O U. Part 2, Hand of the Violinist. This rectangular painting has been transformed into a triangular shape by the two black triangles at the bottom of either side of the rectangle. In the center triangle the artist has created his work. He has painted several copies of a violin with the violinist’s hand, each stacked up on the other in an arc. While the top copy is almost concrete, though still more of a suggestion than a solid image, each copy has become less and less tangilble as you move down the painting. Part 3, Cut with the Kitchen Knife. A collage work. The word dada appears three different times. The other images are an assortment of people, crowds, and man made times, such as wheels and buildings. The collage is primarily newsprint faded to browns and yellows, but near the top left, there is a blue woman whose face has been covered with a black rounded shape.

Figure 4. (left) Picasso, Still Life with Chair Caning, 1912, oil, oilcloth and pasted paper on canvas with rope frame; (center) Giacomo Balla, Hand of the Violinist, 1912, oil on canvas; (right) Hannah Höch, Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany, 1919–20, photomontage

By the early 1920s, technology becomes a vehicle of progress and change, and instills hope in many after the devastations of World War I. For avant-garde (“ahead of the crowd”) artists, photography becomes incredibly appealing for its associations with technology, the everyday, and science—precisely the reasons it was denigrated a half-century earlier. The camera’s technology of mechanical reproduction made it the fastest, most modern, and arguably, the most relevant form of visual representation in the post-WWI era. Photography, then, seemed to offer more than a new method of image-making—it offered the chance to change paradigms of vision and representation.

With August Sander’s portraits, such as Secretary at a Radio Station, Pastry Cook or Disabled Man, we see an artist attempting to document—systematically—modern types of people, as a means to understand changing notions of class, race, profession, ethnicity, and other constructs of identity. Sander transforms the practice of portraiture with these sensational, arresting images. These figures reveal as much about the German professions as they do about self-image.

Three photographic black and white portraits. In the first, a wheelchair-ridden man sits in his chair at the bottom of an outdoor staircase. In the second, a chef looks directly at the camera, holding onto a large mixing bowl that’s resting on the counter. In the third, a secretary sits on a chair, one had on the seat, the other raised as she smokes. None of the subjects of the portraits are smiling.

Figure 5. August Sander, Disabled Man, 1926; Pastry Chef, 1928; Secretary at a Radio Station, Cologne, c. 1931

Cartier-Bresson’s leaping figure in Behind the Gare St. Lazare reflects the potential for photography to capture individual moments in time—to freeze them, hold them, and recreate them. Because of his approach, Cartier-Bresson is often considered a pioneer of photojournalism. This sense of spontaneity, of accuracy, and of the ephemeral corresponded to the racing tempo of modern culture (think of factories, cars, trains, and the rapid pace of people in growing urban centers).

Umbo’s photomontage The Roving Reporter shows how modern technologies transform our perception of the world—and our ability to communicate within it. His camera-eyed, colossal observer (a real-life journalist named Egon Erwin Kisch) demonstrates photography’s ability to alter and enhance the senses. In the early twentieth-century, this medium offered a potentially transformative vision for artists, who sought new ways to see, represent, and understand the rapidly changing world around them.

A two part image. Part 1, Behind the Gare Saint Lazare, is an early black and white photograph capturing motion. The man in the photograph is blurred, his body frozen hovering over water, his reflection clearly visible below him. Part 2, The Roving Reporter, is a black and white photomontage. The montage has taken a man’s face and built him a body made of pens, typewriters, and other machinery. His right eye has been replaced by a full camera. This robotic form walks over mountains, buildings, and crowds causing the reporter to appear on a massive scale.

Figure 6. (left) Henri Cartier-Bresson, Behind the Gare St. Lazare, 1932; (right) Umbo (Otto Umbehr), The Roving Reporter, photomontage, 1926