Chapter 1 References:

Sources: Environmental Public Health Tracking 101 Online Course, Module 6

The content in this module was revised and remixed from Slides produced by the CDC in Part 1- Introduction to Environmental Public Health.pdf

Frumkin, H. (2016). Environmental health: from global to local. John Wiley & Sons.

Population Data Characteristics and Environmental Health (2017). Center for Disease Control.


Chapter 2 References:


Chapter 3 References:

Dr. Kruger’s PUB 220 lecture on the social ecological model

Newman, L., Rowley, J., Hoorn, S. V., Wijesooriya, N. S., Unemo, M., Low, N., . . . Temmerman, M. (2015, December 8). Global Estimates of the Prevalence and Incidence of Four Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections in 2012 Based on Systematic Review and Global Reporting. Retrieved September 14, 2018, from


Chapter 4 References:

Kumar, S., Quinn, S. C., Kim, K. H., Musa, D., Hilyard, K. M., & Freimuth, V. S. (2011). The Social Ecological Model as a Framework for Determinants of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Uptake in the United States. Health Education & Behavior,39(2), 229-243.

Social Ecological Model. (2015, October 27). Retrieved from


Chapter 5 References:

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. (2014). Retrieved September 20, 2018,       from Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (2018, September 19). Retrieved September 20, 2018, from

Risk factors. (2017, October 05). Retrieved September 20, 2018, from

Segrin, C. (2017). Indirect Effects of Social Skills on Health Through Stress and Loneliness. Health Communication, 1-7. doi:10.1080/10410236.2017.1384434

Short, S. E., & Mollborn, S. (2015). Social Determinants and Health Behaviors: Conceptual

Frames and Empirical Advances. Current Opinion Psychology,78-84. doi:10.10.16/j.copsyc.2015.05.002

Spring, B., Moller, A. C., & Coons, M. J. (2012). Multiple health behaviours: overview

and implications. Journal of Public Health (Oxford, England), 34(Suppl 1),



Chapter 6 References:


Benefits of Exercise. (2018, August 22). Retrieved from

Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity. (2016, June 16). Retrieved from

Exclusive breastfeeding to reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. (2015, April 22). Retrieved from

Ferdman, R. A. (2014, June 20). The mysterious case of America’s plummeting milk consumption. Retrieved from


Madell, R. (2017, June 16). Exercise and Heart Disease Statistics. Retrieved from

National Center for Health Statistics. (2017, May 03). Retrieved from

Oberg, E., & Frank, E. (2009, December). Physicians’ health practices strongly influence patient health practices. Retrieved from

O. (2017). Obesity Update 2017. Retrieved from

Overweight & Obesity. (2018, March 05). Retrieved from

Overweight & Obesity. (2018, August 13). Retrieved from

Schneider, M. J. (2010). Introduction to Public Health(5th ed.). Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett.

Socioeconomics and Obesity. (n.d.). Retrieved from

The State of Obesity Created with Sketch. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Why 5 A Day? (n.d.). Retrieved from


Centers for Disease Control (2016).  CDC Fact Sheet: Today’s HIV/AIDS Epidemic, 1

Centers for Disease Control (2017).  Atlas Plus Explore CDC’s HIV, 1

Centers for Disease Control (2017). Anal Sex and HIV Risk, 1

Centers for Disease Control (2018). High-Impact HIV Prevention: CDC’s Approach to Reducing HIV Infections in the United States

Centers for Disease Control (2017) Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention, 1

Centers for Disease Control (2018).  Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), 1

Centers for Disease Control (2018). HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics, 1

Health and behavior: the interplay of biological, behavioral, and societal influences. (2001). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Health and Behavior: Research, P., & Policy, A. (1970, January 01). Social Risk Factors. Retrieved March 29, 2018, from

International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) (2005) ‘HIV-related stigma across contexts: common at its core'[pdf]

Naar-King S, M. G., Garvie P, Kammerer B, Malee K, Sirois PA, Aaron L, Nichols. (2013). Social ecological predictors of longitudinal HIV treatment adherence in youth with perinatally acquired HIV. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 38(6), 664-674. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jst017

Ndeffo-Mbah, M. L., Vigliotti, V. S., Skrip, L. A., Dolan, K., & Galvani, A. P. (n.d.). Dynamic Models of Infectious Disease Transmission in Prisons and the General Population. Retrieved March 29, 2018, from

Stefan Baral, C. H. L., Ashley Grosso, Andrea L Wirtz, Chris Beyer. (2013). Modified social ecological model: a tool to guide the assessment of the risks and risk contexts of HIV epidemics. BMC Public Health, 13(482). doi:…0.0..……1….1..gws-wiz-img.C2j7qH84R2I#imgrc=ZIwNq6sFiblKmM:

Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Godley SH, Dennis ML, Godley MD, Funk RM. Thirty-month relapse trajectory cluster groups among adolescents discharged from outpatient treatment. Addiction. 2004;99 (Supplement 2):129–39. [PubMed]

Gonzales, R., Anglin, M. D., Glik, D. C., & Zavalza, C. (2013). Perceptions about Recovery Needs and Drug-Avoidance Recovery Behaviors among Youth in Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45(4), 297–303.

McCabe, S. E., Morales, M., Cranford, J. A., Delva, J., McPherson, M. D., & Boyd, C. J. (2007). Race/Ethnicity and Gender Differences in Drug Use and Abuse Among College Students. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 6(2), 75–95.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-4. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2011a. HHS Publication No. (SMA), 11–4658.

E Cigarettes

Alexander, J., Williams, P., Coleman, B., and Johnson, S. (September, 2018) A Qualitative Examination of the ENDS Experience by Device Type: Cigalike and Tank Users’ Attitudes Beliefs, and Behaviors. Tobacco Regulatory Science, 4(5), 71–83.

CDC (August, 2018) About Electronic Cigarettes (E-Cigarettes). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from /e-cigarettes/about-e-cigarettes.html

Levy, D. T., Cummings, K. M., Villanti, A. C., Niaura, R., Abrams, D. B., Fong, G. T., & Borland, R. (2017). A framework for evaluating the public health impact of e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products. Addiction, 112(1), 8–17.

NIH (June, 2018) Electronic Cigarettes (E-Cigarettes). National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved from /electronic-cigarettes-e-cigarettes

Paek, HJ and Hove, T. (March 2017) Risk Perceptions and Risk Characteristics. Oxford Research Encyclopedias, DOI:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.283

Pepper, J. K., Farrelly, M. C., & Watson, K. A. (2018). Adolescents’ understanding and use of nicotine in e-cigarettes. Addictive Behaviors, 82, 109–113.


Chapter 7 References:

Affedzie, E. (2017, July 14). The Health Belief Model: A conceptual framework for preventing HIV and AIDS through the ABC model. Retrieved September 30, 2018, from Model-A-conceptual-framework-for-preventing-HIV-and-AIDS-through-the-ABC-model-558722

CommunicateHealth. (2013, November 21). Useful Theory: Health Belief Model. Retrieved from                         model-30a819fd9231

De Paoli M.M., Manongi R., Klepp K.I. (2004). Factors influencing acceptability of                        voluntary counseling and HIV-testing among pregnant women in Northern               Tanzania. AIDS Care,16(4),411-2

Dr. Kruger’s 220 Lecture on Health Belief Model

Dr. Pryzbyla’s PUB 101 Lecture on Health Belief Model

Limitations-Health Belief Model. (n.d.). Retrieved September 30, 2018, from (indent)

Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad, Masoud Karimi, and Mohsen Jannati. “Utility of the                   Health Belief Model to Assess Predictors of Rabies Preventive Measures.” Journal          of Education and Health Promotion 3, (2014): 62.

Noar, S. M., & Zimmerman, R. S. (2005). Health Behavior Theory and Cumulative           Knowledge Regarding Health Behaviors: Are we Moving in the Right                        Direction? Health Education Research,20(3), 275-290.                iiiiiiiiiiiiidoi:10.1093/her/cyg113

University of Pennsylvania. (2018). Health Behavior and Health Education. Retrieved                  October 1, 2018, from                       -constructs.shtml


Chapter 8 References:

Cohen, C. (2015, January 26). Increase in number of young British women being

diagnosed with cervical cancer. Retrieved October 7, 2018, from

Fernández, M. E., Diamond, P. M., Rakowski, W., Gonzales, A., Tortolero-Luna, G.,

Williams, J., & Morales-Campos, D. Y. (2009). Development and Validation of a Cervical Cancer Screening Self-Efficacy Scale for Low-Income Mexican American Women. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : A Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 18(3), 866–875.

Health Communication | Health Belief Model. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2018, from Communication/Health_Belief_Model/

Karimy, M., Azarpira, H., & Araban, M. (2017). Using Health Belief Model Constructs

to Examine Differences in Adherence to Pap Test Recommendations Among Iranian Women. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention,18(5), 1389-1394. doi:10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.5.1389

LaMorte, W. W. (2018). Behavioral Change Models. The Health Belief Model.

Retrieved  October 7, 2018, from

Witte, K. (1992).Putting the Fear Back into Fear Appeals: The Extended Parallel

Process model. Communication Monographs, 59(4), 329. Retrieved from

Tiraki, Z., & Yılmaz, M. (2017). Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Self-Efficacy,

and Health Literacy Levels of Married Women. Retrieved October 07, 2018, from


Chapter 9 References:

Martin. (2017, October 28) Cleverism Retreived October 6, 2018

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005) Theory at a Glance A Guide For Health Promotion Practice (2nd ed.) National Institute of Health.

Ajzen, I. (1985) From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior

Health Behavior and Health Education. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2018, from

Benoit, Ph.D., W. L. (n.d.). Theory of Reasoned Action. Retrieved from

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975).. Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Sheppard, B. H., Hartwick, J., & Warshaw, P. R. (1988). The theory of reasoned action: A meta-analysis of past research with recommendations for modifications and future research. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 325-343

Hosseini, Z., Gharlipour Gharghani, Z., Mansoori, A., Aghamolaei, T., & Mohammadi Nasrabadi, M. (2015). Application of the theory of reasoned action to promoting breakfast consumption. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 29, 289.

“Health Behavior and Health Education.” About Prolonged Exposure Therapy | Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety | Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania,

Montano , Daniel E., and Danuta Kasprzyk. “Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, and The Integrated Behavioral Model.” Health Behavior: Theory, Research, and Practice, by Karen Glanz et al., Jossey-Bass, 2015, pp. 95–124.

Guo, Q, et al. “Utility of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior for Predicting Chinese Adolescent Smoking.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2007,

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2002). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Chapter 10 References:

Block, S. J. (n.d.). Health Behavior and Health Education. Retrieved from

Hennessy, M., Bleakley, A., & Fishbein, M. (2012, March). Retrieved from

Health Communication | Theory of Planned Behavior/ Reasoned Action. (n.d.). Retrieved from Communication/theory_planned_behavior/

Albarracín, D., Johnson, B. T., Fishbein, M., & Muellerleile, P. A. (2001, January). Retrieved from

Bandura, A. (2001). SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY: An Agentic Perspective. Annual

Review of Psychology, 1. Retrieved from

Oneill, J., Daniel, T. O., & Epstein, L. H. (2016). Episodic future thinking reduces eating in a

food court. Eating Behaviors,20, 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2015.10.002

Health Behavior and Health Education. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2018, from

Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2018, from

Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2014). An Integrated Behavior Change Model for

Physical Activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews,42(2), 62-69. doi:10.1249/jes.0000000000000008

Fishbein, M. “A Reasoned Action Approach: Some Issues, Questions, and Clarifications.” In I.

Ajzen, D. Albarracin, and R. Hornik (eds.), Prediction and Change of Health Behavior: Applying the Reasoned Action Approach. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 2007.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., and Lewis, F. M. “Theory, Research, and Practice in Health Behavior and

Health Education.” In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, and F. M. Lewis (eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. (4th ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.

Health Behavior and Health Education. (n.d.). Retrieved from

A. (2013, November 20). The Integrated Behavioral Model. Retrieved from

An Integrated Behavior Change Model for Physical Activity : Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. (2014, April). Retrieved from


Chapter 11 References:

Chapter 16 Stages of change picture:

Social and Behevioral Theory:

Health Theory:

Behevioral Change Models:

Four Principles of Change Theory:

Theory of Change:

Precaution Adoption Process Model:

Weinstein, N. D., & Sandman, P. M. (2002). The precaution adoption process model and its application. Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 16-39.

F. Stanger-Hall, K., & W. Hall, D.. (2013, February 20). The Precaution-Adoption-Process Model. (Version 1). PLOS ONE.

John Elliot, B. S., Mercedes Jacobson. (2007). Use of the Precaution Process Model to ecamine prdeictors of osteoprotective behavior in epilepsy. Seizure, 16(5), 424-437.


Description of the changes and factors that describe behavior:

DiClemente, R. J., Crosby, R. A., & Kegler, M. C. (2009). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research. Retrieved October 12, 2018.

Fazio, R. H., & Zanna, M. P. (1981). Direct Experience And Attitude-Behavior Consistency. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Volume 14, 161-202. doi:10.1016/s0065-2601(08)60372-x

Klayman, J. (1995). Varieties of Confirmation Bias. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 385-418. doi:10.1016/s0079-7421(08)60315-1

Usefulness of Health Theories:

Munro, S., Lewin, S., Swart, T., & Volmink, J. (2007). A review of health behaviour theories: how useful are these for developing interventions to promote long-term medication adherence for TB and HIV/AIDS? BMC Public Health, 7, 104.

Barriers to Change:

Grol, R., & Wensing, M. (2004). What drives change? Barriers to and incentives for achieving evidence-based practice. Medical Journal of Australia, 180(6 Suppl), S57.


Chapter 12 Resources:


Chapter 13 Resources: (The actual game)

Chapter 14 Resources:


Triad and Health Belief Model:

Fisher, C. B., Fried, A. L., Desmond, M., Macapagal, K., & Mustanski, B. (2018). Perceived Barriers to HIV Prevention Services for Transgender Youth. LGBT health, 5(6), 350-358.

White, B. L., Walsh, J., Rayasam, S., Pathman, D. E., Adimora, A. A., & Golin, C. E. (2014). What Makes Me Screen for HIV? Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Conducting Recommended Routine HIV Testing among Primary Care Physicians in the Southeastern United States. Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, 14(2), 127-35.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). HIV Basics, PeP. Retrieved from

Wolf, M. S., Davis, T. C., Osborn, C. Y., Skripkauskas, S., Bennett, C. L., & Makoul, G. (2007). Literacy, self-efficacy, and HIV medication adherence. Patient Education and Counseling,65(2), 253-260. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2006.08.006

Nganwa, D., Habtemariam, T., Tameru, B., Gerbi, G., Bogale, A., Robnett, V., & Wilson, W. (2010). APPLYING THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC PROBLEM ORIENTED APPROACH (EPOA) METHODOLOGY IN DEVELOPING A KNOWLEDGE BASE FOR THE MODELING OF HIV/AIDS. Ethnicity & Disease, 20(1 Suppl 1), S1–173–7.

Engard, B. (2017, February 22). What is the Epidemiologic Triangle? | Rivier University Online. Retrieved from


“Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice, Third Edition: An Introduction,” n.d.,

511, 2012.

“Understanding the Epidemiologic Triangle through Infectious Disease,” n.d., 13.

Glanz, Karen, Barbara K. Rimer, and K. Viswanath. Health Behavior: Theory, Research,

and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, 2015.

“Health Behavior and Health Education.” Health Behavior and Health Education | Part

Two, Chapter Six: Overview,

“ReCAPP: Theories & Approaches: Health Belief Model (HBM).” Accessed October 25,



Precaution Adoption Process Model

HIV InSite. (2004, July 22). Comprehensive, up-to-date information on HIV/AIDS treatment

and prevention from the University of California San Francisco. Retrieved October

30, 2018, from

Science Direct. (2007, April 18). Use of the Precaution Adoption Process Model to examine

predictors of osteoprotective behavior in epilepsy. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from

World Health Organization. (2017). Epidemiological Triad. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from

University of Pennsylvania. (2008). Health Behavior and Health Education. Retrieved

October 30, 2018, from


                          Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior



Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ebola. Retrieved on October 31, 2018 from


Fishbein, M. (2008). A Reasoned Action Approach to Health Promotion. Medical Decision Making : An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making, 28(6), 834–844.


Hackman, C. L., & Knowlden, A. P. (2014). Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 5, 101–114.


Health Behavior and health Education. Theory Research and Practice Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior. Retrieved on November 1, 2018, from


Chapter 15 References:

10 facts on health inequities and their causes. (2017). Retrieved from

Assistant Professor, Departments of Health Policy and Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Retrieved from

Association, A. P. (2018).   Retrieved from

General, S. (2018). Elimination of Health Disparities.   Retrieved from

Dean and the William E. Gordon Professor, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis.

Garfinkel, S. A., Bonito, A. J., & McLeroy, K. R. (1987). Socioeconomic factors and Medicare

supplemental health insurance. Health care financing review, 9(1), 21-30.

Higgins, S. T. (2014). Behavior change, health and health disparities: An introduction. Prev

Med., 68, 1-4.

Orgera, K., & Artiga, S. (2018). Disparities in health and health care: Five key questions and


Prevention, C. f. D. C. a. (2018). CDC Health disparities & inequalities report (CHDIR)

Retrieved from

Price, J. H., Khubchandani, J., & Webb, F. J. (2018). Poverty and Health Disparities: What

Can Public Health Professionals Do? Health Promotion Practice, 19(2), 170–174.

Pike, S. N. & et al . (2017). Preventing Chronic Disease. Retrieved from

Stine, N. W., Chokshi, D. A., & Gourevitch, M. N. (2013). Improving population health in US cities.

JAMA, 309(5), 449-50.

Weech‐Maldonado, R., Elliott, M. N., Adams, J. L., Haviland, A. M., Klein, D. J.,

Hambarsoomian, K., .

Gaillot, S. (2015). Do Racial/Ethnic disparities in quality and patient experience within medicare plans generalize across measures and Racial/Ethnic groups?Health Services Research, 50(6), 1829-1849. doi:10.1111/1475-6773.1229

Williams, D. R., & Rucker, T. D. (2000). Understanding and addressing racial disparities in

health care.

Health care financing review, 21(4), 75-90.


Chapter 16 References:

Buffalo’s health disparities are the focus of community-wide conference hosted by UB. (2018, April 17). Retrieved from

Buffalo’s Health Disparities Get Community Wake-Up Call. (2018, May 22). Retrieved from

Health Disparities. (2018, June 19). Retrieved from

Services & Outreach Programs. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Bhatt, J. (2018, May 16). Your Zip Code, Your Health | AHA News. Retrieved from

Burstein, G. R. (n.d.). COUNTY OF ERIE MARK C. P C EXECUTIVE. Retrieved

November 11, 2018, from

Cadzow, R. (n.d.). Is inequality making Buffalo sick? Retrieved from

Ewing, C. (2018, April 26). Health disparity based on zip codes in WNY. Retrieved from

Health Disparities. (2018, September 11). Retrieved November 11, 2018, from

Okparanta, I. (2016, December 15). Research is Key to Tackling Health Disparity


Ross, T. (2017). Health Equity The Path to Inclusive Prosperity in Buffalo.


Chapter 17 Resources:


Sexual Identity

Baptiste-Roberts, K., Oranuba, E., Werts, N., & Edwards, L. V. (2017). Addressing Health Care Disparities Among Sexual Minorities. Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America, 44(1), 71-80.

Dahlhamer, J. M., Galinsky, A. M., Joestl, S. S., & Ward, B. W. (2016). Barriers to Health Care Among Adults Identifying as Sexual Minorities: A US National Study. American journal of public health, 106(6), 1116-22

Healthy People. (n.d.). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health. Retrieved November 20, 2018, from

Jackson, C. L., Agénor, M., Johnson, D. A., Austin, S. B., & Kawachi, I. (2016). Sexual orientation identity disparities in health behaviors, outcomes, and services use among men and women in the United States: a cross-sectional study. BMC public health, 16(1), 807. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3467-1


CDC. (2017, August 01). Disability and Health. Retrieved November 20, 2018, from

Krahn, G. L., Walker, D. K., & Correa-De-Araujo, R. (2015). Persons with disabilities as an unrecognized health disparity population. American journal of public health, 105 Suppl 2(Suppl 2), S198-206.

Sharby, N., Martire, K., & Iversen, M. D. (2015). Decreasing health disparities for people with disabilities through improved communication strategies and awareness. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12(3), 3301-16. doi:10.3390/ijerph120303301


Olah, M. E., Gaisano, G., & Hwang, S. W. (2013). The effect of socioeconomic status on access to primary care: an audit study. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l’Association medicale canadienne, 185(6), E263-9.

Pampel, F. C., Krueger, P. M., & Denney, J. T. (2010). Socioeconomic Disparities in Health Behaviors. Annual review of sociology, 36, 349-370.

U.S. Census. (2016). Educational Attainment in the United States. Retrieved November 20, 2018, from

Geographic Area and Health Disparities

Ailshire, J., & Garcia, C. (2018). Unequal Places: The Impacts of Socioeconomic and Race/Ethnic Differences in Neighborhoods. Generations, 42(2), 20–27. Retrieved from

Li Yao, & Robert, S. A. (2008). The Contributions of Race, Individual Socioeconomic Status, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context on the Self-Rated Health Trajectories and Mortality of Older Adults. Research on Aging, 30(2), 251–273.

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Guidance for Designing a National Healthcare Disparities Report; Swift EK, editor.

Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2002.

Why are these areas disadvantaged?

Shertzer, A., Twinam, T., & Walsh, R. (2016). Race, Ethnicity, and Discriminatory Zoning. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics,8(3). doi:10.3386/w20108

Feagin, J., & Bennefield, Z. (2014). Systemic racism and U.S. health care. Social Science & Medicine,103, 7-14. doi:

How Health Disparities are Discovered

Gibbons, M. C. (2005). A Historical Overview of Health Disparities and the Potential of eHealth Solutions. Encyclopedia of Healthcare Information Systems. doi:10.4018/9781599048895.ch086

Adler, N. E. (2006). Overview of Health Disparities. In G.E. Thomson, F. Mitchell, & M.B. Williams (Eds.), Examining the Health Disparities Research Plan of the National Institutes of Health: Unfinished Business. ( pp. 121-122). Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).

Sarche, M., & Spicer, P. (2008). Poverty and Health Disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native Children. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,1136(1), 126-136. doi:10.1196/annals.1425.017

Commodore-Mensah, Y., Matthie, N., Wells, J., Dunbar, S. B., Himmelfarb, C. D., Cooper, L. A., & Chandler, R. D. (2017). African Americans, African Immigrants, and Afro-Caribbeans Differ in Social Determinants of Hypertension and Diabetes: Evidence from the National Health Interview Survey [Abstract]. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities,5(5), 995-1002. doi:10.1007/s40615-017-0446-x

Author, N. (2015, December 10). The American Middle Class Is Losing Ground. Retrieved from

United States of America, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control. (n.d.). Health, United States, 2011. Retrieved from

Race and Ethnicity

A Nation Free of Disparities in Health and Healthcare. (2018). Retrieved from

Chen, J., Vargas-Bustamante, A., Mortensen, K., & Ortega, A. N. (2016). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization Under the Affordable Care Act. Medical care, 54(2), 140-6.

Orgera, K., & Artiga, S. (2018, August 08). Disparities in Health and Health Care: Five Key Questions and Answers. Retrieved from

Racial and Ethnic Health Care Disparities. (2015). Retrieved from

Sealy-Jefferson, S., Vickers, J., Elam, A., & Wilson, M. R. (2015). Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities and the Affordable Care Act: a Status Update. Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities, 2(4), 583-8.


Sagynbekov, K. (2017, October 30). Gender-Based Health Disparities: A State-Level Study of the American Adult Population. Retrieved from

Yin, S. (2007, November 9). Gender Disparities in Health and Mortality. Retrieved from


Chapter 18 References:

(2012). Conceptual approaches to the study of health disparities. Annual review of public health, 33, 41-58.

Care Am J (2004). Healthcare disparities and models for change. Retrieved from

Zimmerman. E, Woolf. S, Haley. A. (2015). Population health: behavioral and social science insights. U.S Department of Health & Human Services. Retrived  from

Ingram, R. C., Miron, E., & Scutchfield, D. F. (2012). From service provision to function based performance – perspectives on public health systems from the USA and Israel. NCBI.         SDOH.pdf

Kruger J. (2018). Social ecological model. Tophat. Retrieved from


Chapter 19 References:

American Cancer Society (2018). Breast Cancer: Facts & Figures 2017-2018. Retrieved

Bowes, S. & Carmelhealth. (2015, July 26). Health Literacy. Retrieved from

Brach, C., Fraserirector, I. (2000). Can Cultural Competency Reduce Racial and Ethnic

CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report (CHDIR). (2015, September 10). Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014, March 13). Healthy People 2020|About DHDSP|DHDSP|CDC. Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016, October 03). Health Equity. Retrieved from

Conclusion and Future Directions: CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report – United States, 2013. (2013, November 22). Retrieved from

from statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures-2017-2018.pdf. Health Disparities? A Review and Conceptual Model. Retrieved from

Hhs. (n.d.). National Prevention Council. Retrieved from

HP2020_SpotlightOnHealthHRQOL[PDF]. (n.d.). Department of Health and Human Services.

Liu, D., Burston, B. C., Stewart, S. C., & Mulligan, H. H. (2019). The challenges of health disparities: Implications and actions for healthcare administration.

National Center for Health Statistics. (2011, October 14). Retrieved from

Nielsen-Bohlman, L. (2004). Health literacy: A prescription to end confusion. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.

Nutbeam, D. (2008). The evolving concept of health literacy. Social science & medicine, 67(12), 2072-2078.

Partin, M., Burgess, D. (2012). Reducing Health Disparities or Improving Minority Health?

Prins, E., & Mooney, A. (2014). Literacy and health disparities. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2014(142), 25-35. doi:10.1002/ace.20092

  1. (2016). Evaluating Strategies For Reducing Health Disparities By Addressing The Social Determinants Of Health. Health Affairs,35(8), 1416-1423. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1357

Raynor, D. K. T. (2012). Health literacy. Bmj, 344 doi:10.1136/bmj.e2188

Sarkar , U. , Gupta , R. , Tang , A. , Murphy , E. , Seligman , H. K. , Shojania , K. G. , &

Schillinger , D. ( 2008 ). Use of an interactive, telephone-based self-management support program to identify adverse events among ambulatory diabetes patients . Journal of General Internal Medicine , 23 ( 4 ), 459 – 465 .

Satcher, D., & Higginbotham, E. J. (2008). The Public Health Approach to Eliminating Disparities in Health. American Journal of Public Health,98(3), 400-403. doi:10.2105/ajph.2007.123919

Scott, R. E., & Mars, M. (2013). Principles and Framework for eHealth Strategy Development. Journal of Medical Internet Research,15(7). doi:10.2196/jmir.2250

The End Determines the Means. Retrieved from

Thornton, R. L., Glover, C. M., Cené, C. W., Glik, D. C., Henderson, J. A., & Williams, D.

Vancheri, C. (Ed.). (2011). Innovations in health literacy research: workshop summary. National Academies Press.