The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were created earlier than the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM) (Guo, 2007). Fishbein and colleagues expanded the TRA and TPB to include components from other major behavioral theories (Montano and Kasprzyk 2015). The Integrated Behavioral Model combined parts of the TRA/TPB. They described a model that would primarily focus on the determinants of behavioral intention. Also, in a 2002 Institute of Medicine report, Speaking of Health, an integrated model was developed for using communication strategies to change health behaviors. It was not integrated until the early 2000s. The Integrated Behavioral Model is a general theory of behavioral predictions that is assumed to apply to any given situation.
Similar to TRA/TPB, the most important determinant is motivation/intention. Without motivation/intention, an individual is less likely to carry out a behavior. An individual need to know the knowledge, as well as have the skills to act (Montano and Kasprzyk, 2015).
The Integrated Behavioral Model is a combination of the two theories, the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The Theory of Reasoned Action used the behavior beliefs and the evaluation of behavior to determine one’s attitude about the behavior that normative beliefs and one’s motivation to comply. It also determines one’s perception of the subjective norms about the behavior with attitude and subjective norms identifying one’s intention to perform the act. This had the effect of being the most crucial determinant of behavior adoption (Montano and Kasprzyk, 2015). Also, with that are the external variables like demographics, personal traits, attitudes, and other individual norms (Health Behavior and Health Education). The Theory of Planned Behavior adds on but with the addition of control as a determinant of behavior (the idea that one’s ability to control beliefs and perceived power determine their perceived authority of the situation). This, along with perceived control as well as attitude and subjective norms, are the constructs that one performs the behavior, and behavior itself.
The Integrated Behavioral Model has four additional factors that directly affect whether or not behavior can be carried out:
- Knowledge and skills to perform the behavior
- Salience of the behavior
- Environmental constraints
All these factors should be considered for an intervention that is promoting behavior change.
Examples with a stressed, pregnant woman
|Knowledge and skills to perform the behavior||A pregnant woman may have developed the intention of lowering her stress level during pregnancy, but might not know how to do that. She cannot find ways to reduce stress.|
|Salience of Behavior||If a pregnant mother intends to keep her stress level low during her pregnancy, she wouldn’t understand how her intention during the pregnancy could make her very stressful. She can have a low birth weight and preterm birth.|
|Environmental constraints||A pregnant mother may be able to recognize the importance of exercise as a stress reducer. However, if the weather is terrible, how does one exercise? She doesn’t, which will make her stress about it. Also, expectant mothers who live in lower SES neighborhoods may experience more violence in their everyday lives. This may affect the mother’s desire to go out and exercise.|
|Habit||The pregnant mother struggles to get into a consistent exercise routine to reduce stress.|