Concept check

  1. Why are directional terms important to the study of anatomy?
  2. What are the three body planes?
  3. How is the dorsal cavity different from the ventral cavity?
  4. What is the important of serous membranes and where are they found?
  5. List and define the four different types of tissues.
  6. Where is epithelial tissue located?
  7. List the different types of connective tissue.
  8. What are the differences between the three types of muscle tissue?
  9. What are the two major types of cells of the nervous tissue?
  10. List the steps in tissue repair.
  11. List the levels of organization in in the body.
  12. What are the body systems and what are their functions?
  13. What prevents swallowed food from entering the airways?
  14. Explain the mechanism responsible for gastroesophageal reflux.
  15. Explain how the stomach is protected from self-digestion and why this is necessary.
  16. Describe unique anatomical features that enable the stomach to perform digestive functions.
  17. How nutrients absorbed in the small intestine pass into the general circulation.
  18. Why is it important that chyme from the stomach is delivered to the small intestine slowly and in small amounts?
  19. Describe three of the differences between the walls of the large and small intestines.
  20. Why does the pancreas secrete some enzymes in their inactive forms, and where are these enzymes activated?
  21. Explain the role of bile salts in the emulsification of lipids (fats).
  22. By clicking on this link, you can watch a short video of what happens to the food you eat as it passes from your mouth to your intestine. Along the way, note how the food changes consistency and form. How does this change in consistency facilitate your gaining nutrients from food?
  23. Visit this site for an overview of digestion of food in different regions of the digestive tract. Note the route of non-fat nutrients from the small intestine to their release as nutrients to the body.
  24. Watch this animation that depicts the structure of the small intestine, and, in particular, the villi. Epithelial cells continue the digestion and absorption of nutrients and transport these nutrients to the lymphatic and circulatory systems. In the small intestine, the products of food digestion are absorbed by different structures in the villi. Which structure absorbs and transports fats?
  25. By watching this animation, you will see that for the various food groups—proteins, fats, and carbohydrates—digestion begins in different parts of the digestion system, though all end in the same place. Of the three major food classes (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins), which is digested in the mouth, the stomach, and the small intestine?