Accounting equation Assets = Liabilities + Equity.
Accounts payable Amounts owed to suppliers for goods or services purchased on credit.
Accounts receivable Amounts due from customers for services already provided.
Assets Things of value owned by the business. Examples include cash, machines, and buildings. To their owners, assets possess service potential or utility that can be measured and expressed in money terms.
Balance sheet Financial statement that lists a company’s assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity (including dollar amounts) as of a specific moment in time. Also called a statement of financial position.
Business entity concept (or accounting entity concept) The separate existence of the business organization.
Capital stock The title given to an equity account showing the investment in a business corporation by its stockholders.
Continuity See going-concern concept.
Corporation Business incorporated under the laws of one of the states and owned by a few stockholders or by thousands of stockholders.
Cost Sacrifice made or the resources given up, measured in money terms, to acquire some desired thing, such as a new truck (asset).
Dividend Payment (usually of cash) to the owners of a corporation; it is a distribution of income to owners rather than an expense of doing business.
Entity A business unit that is deemed to have an existence separate and apart from its owners, creditors, employees, customers, other interested parties, and other businesses, and for which accounting records are maintained.
Equities Broadly speaking, all claims to, or interests in, assets; includes liabilities and stockholders’ equity.
Equity ratio A ratio found by dividing stockholders’ equity by total equities (or total assets).
Exchange-price (or cost) concept (principle) The objective money prices determined in the exchange process are used to record most assets.
Expenses Costs incurred to produce revenues, measured by the assets surrendered or consumed in serving customers.
Going-concern (continuity) concept The assumption by the accountant that unless strong evidence exists to the contrary, a business entity will continue operations into the indefinite future.
Income statement Financial statement that shows the revenues and expenses and reports the profitability of a business organization for a stated period of time. Sometimes called an earnings statement.
Liabilities Debts owed by a business—or creditors’ equity. Examples: notes payable, accounts payable.
Manufacturing companies Companies that buy materials, convert them into products, and then sell the products to other companies or to final customers.
Merchandising companies Companies that purchase goods ready for sale and sell them to customers.
Money measurement concept Recording and reporting economic activity in a common monetary unit of measure such as the dollar.
Net income Amount by which the revenues of a period exceed the expenses of the same period.
Net loss Amount by which the expenses of a period exceed the revenues of the same period.
Notes payable Amounts owed to parties who loan the company money after the owner signs a written agreement (a note) for the company to repay each loan.
Partnership An unincorporated business owned by two or more persons associated as partners.
Periodicity (time periods) concept An assumption that an entity’s life can be meaningfully subdivided into time periods (such as months or years) for purposes of reporting its economic activities.
Profitability Ability to generate income. The income statement reflects a company’s profitability.
Retained earnings Accumulated net income less dividend distributions to stockholders.
Revenues Inflows of assets (such as cash) resulting from the sale of products or the rendering of services to customers.
Service companies Companies (such as accounting firms, law firms, or dry cleaning establishments) that perform services for a fee.
Single proprietorship An unincorporated business owned by an individual and often managed by that individual.
Solvency Ability to pay debts as they become due. The balance sheet reflects a company’s solvency.
Source document Any written or printed evidence of a business transaction that describes the essential facts of that transaction, such as receipts for cash paid or received.
Statement of cash flows Financial statement showing cash inflows and outflows for a company over a period of time.
Statement of retained earnings Financial statement used to explain the changes in retained earnings that occurred between two balance sheet dates.
Stockholders’ equity The owners’ interest in a corporation.
Stockholders or shareholders Owners of a corporation; they buy shares of stock, which are units of ownership, in the corporation.
Summary of transactions Teaching tool to show the effects of transactions on the accounting equation.
Transaction A business activity or event that causes a measurable change in the items in the accounting equation, Assets = Liabilities + Equity.