When someone works to build a supportive relationship with a marginalized or mistreated group of people they are not a part of, that continues even when that relationship threatens their own comfort, status, or relationships within their own group.
ATLG Scale
A 20-item scale designed in the 1980s by Social Psychologist Greg Herek that measures attitudes toward lesbians and gay men ranging from hostility to tolerance.
The positive and negative emotions, beliefs, and behaviors that a person holds or exhibits toward another person, group, object, or event.
Aversive Prejudice
A theory of prejudice that was originally proposed in the 1980s by Gaertner & Dovidio in the context of aversive racism, that suggests that negative attitudes toward marginalized groups are sometimes manifest indirectly through feelings of discomfort and the avoidance of members of those groups.
coming out
Also known as “coming out of the closet”a process in the lives of LBGTQ people, of disclosing one’s sexual orientation or gender identity to others.
compulsory heterosexuality
An idea proposed by feminist writer and scholar Adrienne Rich in 1980 that because of patriarchy and heteronormativity, society assumes and mandates heterosexuality in everyone.
Contact Hypothesis
A theory, introduced by psychologist Gordon Allport in the 1950s, that suggests that, under the right conditions, prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination can be reduced or eliminated by encouraging interaction between members of the majority and the minority groups.
Dignity for All Students Act (DASA)
A law in New York State that was passed in 2010 that seeks to eliminate discrimination and bullying (based on races, size, national origin, ethnicity, religion, ability, sexual orientation, gender identity, and sex) in schools through education, modification of district codes of conduct, and the mandated collecting and reporting of incident data.
disadvantaged social status
A lower place within the social hierarchy of a society, often defined by lower levels of power, social value, and exclusion from full and equal access to material and symbolic forms of citizenship.
The unjust or prejudicial treatment of an individual or group based on their actual or perceived membership in a particular group or class of people (i.e., race, gender identity, or sexual orientation).
The political philosophy of believing in the equality of all; and in the elimination of inequality.
ego-defensive reactions
A reaction that is motivated by the unconscious need to avoid disturbing or threatening thoughts, such as thoughts that might result in feelings of guilt.
The philosophy or belief that all things, including categories like race, sex, gender, and sexuality, have a set of distinct qualities or characteristics that exist prior to our awareness or understanding of them.
The theory that all aspects of society, and the human species (including our psychological natures), exist because they have helped us adapt and survive as a society and/or species.
hate crimes
Crimes, such as assault, bullying, harassment, vandalism, and abuse, that are motivated by prejudice toward a certain group; that sometimes incur harsher penalties.
A societal belief that makes heterosexuality the default, and assumes that everyone is heterosexual until proven otherwise; normalizing heterosexuality and othering any other identity or experience apart from heterosexuality.
An attitude and belief based on the idea that everyone is heterosexual or that heterosexuality is the only acceptable sexual orientation.
Negative or hostile attitudes toward people who identify as, or are perceived to be, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer. Biphobia and transphobia are also used to describe negative or hostile attitudes toward people who identify, or are perceived to be, bisexual or transgender.
intergroup contact
Contact between members of different social groups; sometimes referring to groups that are, or have been, in conflict.
internalized homophobia
The acceptance or internalization of anti-LGBTQ prejudice or stereotypes by LBGTQ people.
Common verbal, behavioural, or environmental insults, indignities, and slights that cause harm by communicating, intentionally or unintentionally, hostility and prejudice toward members of a marginalized groups.
minority stress
Social stress resulting from being a member of a social group or having a social identity that is stigmatized by the society in which they live.
modern prejudice
Prejudice that is expressed toward an individual through subtle discriminatory behaviors, denying that ongoing discrimination against that group continues, or the suggestion that the marginalized group is trying to advance too far, too fast.
A society, or belief system, which favors or privileges men at the expense of women; in which men hold most of the power and control most of the wealth; and in which women are marginalized.
The LGBTQ movement after 1969.
Negative emotions, beliefs, or behaviors toward an individual, based on their group membership, when one has no prior knowledge or experience with that individual.
public opinion polls
A survey intended to measure the views or attitudes or opinions of the general public on various topics, issues, or social problems.
An individual’s ability to recover, or bounce back,from a stressful or traumatic experience.
The effort of a social group or social movement to challenge or struggle against another group, policy, or government that is oppressing them.
right wing authoritarianism
A personality characteristic describing individuals who easily submit and defer to leaders, or authority figures, they perceive as strong and legitimate; who tend to adhere to social norms and hold negative attitudes towards anyone who challenges them; and who support the use of force to preserve norms and bring about social order.
symbolic prejudice
A subtle and indirect form of prejudice toward a group that can manifest as the rejection of the policies and initiatives that are designed to help that group achieve equality, while also expressing support for the equality of that group.
sexual minority individuals
People who have sexual identities that are not straight, including but not limited to lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and pansexual.
same-sex relationships
Sexual and/or romantic relationship involving two partners who share the sex assigned at birth and gender identity.
social stress
A form of stress that emanates from a person’s relationships with other people, communities, and the general social environment.