“The state of being
cast off”. The term has been explored in post-structuralism as that
which inherently disturbs conventional identity and cultural concepts.
The longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America.
The study of history with particular attention to ancient artifacts, archaeological and historical sights.
A scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their extinct hominin ancestors, and related non-human primates, particularly from an evolutionary perspective.
First coined by British archaeologist Grahame Clark in 1972 as a reference to zooarchaeology, one that studies animal bones from archaeological sites.
Attempts to critique or dismantle hegemonic power. In other words, it is a confrontation and/or opposition to an existing status quo and its legitimacy in politics, but can also be observed in various other spheres of life, such as history, media, music, etc.
critical theory
The reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities to reveal and challenge power structures. Critical theory has origins in sociology and also in literary criticism.
A term used in social sciences and anthropology to describe the act of judging another culture based on the values and standards of one’s own culture are superior – especially with regards to language, behavior, customs, and religion.
A range of social movements, political movements, and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes.
gender complementarity
See also gender hierarchy. Sometimes offered as an alternative to gender hierarchy, in which genders are ranked (with men typically having more power, prestige etc). In gender complementarity, men and women (and other genders, if they are recognized) play similarly important roles but in different areas of social life. Gender complementarity more accurately describes gender relations than gender hierarchy in some times and places.
gender fluidity
Cultural ideas about gender frequently imply that one’s gender identity is fixed and unchanging. Gender fluidity describes situations in which one’s gender identity may change throughout the life cycle or in different contexts.
gender hierarchy
How genders are ranked in terms of power and prestige. Typically this means that man are ranked higher than women.
gender parallelism
Often used interchangeably with gender complementarity as an alternative to gender hierarchy in some times and places
(e.g., in the Inca empire). Men and women (and other genders, if culturally
recognized) have similar levels of power and prestige, but in different area
of social life. See also Gender hierarchy.
The belief that heterosexuality, predicated on the gender binary, is the norm or default sexual orientation.
The study of (or a sociological methodology of studying) overlapping or intersecting social identities, such as race, class, and gender and related systems of
oppression, domination, or discrimination.
looted artifact
An artifact that has been removed from its original archaeological context, usually illegally, by non-archaeologists who do not record contextual information. Looted artifacts are often sold on the art market outside of their place of origin.
Archaeologists despise looting because an artifact without context is much less informative about the culture that produced it than an artifact with contextual information.
An archaeological region defined by pre-contact cultural traits such as a distinctive calendar system, maize agriculture, and state-level political organization. It extended from northern Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica. Within this region pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Normativity is the phenomenon in human societies of designating some actions or outcomes as good or desirable or permissible and others as bad or undesirable or impermissible
This term has been popularized in gender studies by the scholar Judith Butler. It’s origins lie in linguistics. Linguistic performatives are utterances that do not just describe the world, but change it (e.g., “I pronounce you husband and wife”). In gender studies, the term has been used to highlight the idea that gender is not a given, but must be continually demonstrated through word, actions, dress, etc.
A complex concept that can be thought of as a language which functions as a form of social action and has the effect of change.
The contexts that make up an individual’s identity, such as race, class, gender, and sexuality, and how these affect one’s view of the world.
The methodological study of cultural change and variability in archaeology
The practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification.
“the abject”
See abjection
Effeminate men who had a range of institutional roles in Aztec society.