While this article doesn’t cover all the operatic composers that we listen to in our class, it does provide a helpful summary of the Italian and German operatic traditions in the late 19th century. It also provides some helpful listening prompts for understanding the characteristics of the music of Verdi and Wagner. Please read this article carefully, and be sure to look up any musical terms that are unfamiliar using the site’s “A to Z Dictionary”. The link for that dictionary is found on the lower left of the page. Terms like leitmotif, bel canto, or rubato may appear on Exam 4 Terminology.