|Argument||A proposition supported by one or more reasons or pieces of evidence.|
|Backing||Foundational evidence which supports a claim, such as examples, statistics, or testimony.|
|Causal Pattern||A speech designed to explain a cause-effect relationship between two phenomena.|
|Causal Reasoning||The process of formulating an argument by examining related events to determine which one caused the other.|
|Claim||The proposition you want the audience to accept.|
|Coercion||A process whereby thoughts or behaviors are altered through deceptive or harmful methods.|
|Data||Preliminary evidence on which a claim is based.|
|Deductive Reasoning||The process of formulating an argument by moving from a general premise to a specific conclusion.|
|Demographics||Statistical information that reflects the make-up of a group, often including age, sex, ethnic or cultural background, socioeconomic status, religion, and political affiliation.|
|Direct Method Pattern||A speech designed to present a claim with a list of several supporting pieces of data.|
|Ethos||The audience’s perception of a speaker’s credibility and moral character.|
|Evaluation Criteria||A set of standards for judging the merit of a proposition.|
|Fallacies||Errors in reasoning that occur when a speaker fails to use appropriate or applicable evidence for their argument.|
|Hostile Audience||An audience that is opposed to the speaker or to the persuasive proposition.|
|Identification||A connection that is fostered between the speaker and their audience by highlighting shared attributes or attitudes.|
|Inductive Reasoning||The process of formulating an argument by moving from specific instances to a generalization.|
|Logos||The logical means of proving an argument.|
|Monroe’s Motivated Sequence||An organizational pattern that attempts to convince the audience to respond to a need that is delineated in the speech through five sequential steps.|
|Neutral Audience||An audience that is neither open nor opposed to the persuasive proposition.|
|Pathos||The use of emotional appeals to persuade an audience.|
|Persuasion||The art of influencing or reinforcing people’s beliefs, attitudes, values, or actions.|
|Persuasive Speeches||Speeches which aim to convince an audience to think or behave in a particular way.|
|Proposition of Fact||An argument that seeks to establish whether something is true or false.|
|Proposition of Policy||An argument that seeks to establish an appropriate course of action.|
|Proposition of Value||An argument that seeks to establish the relative worth of something.|
|Receptive Audience||An audience that is generally supportive of, or open to, the persuasive proposition.|
|Refutation Pattern||A speech designed to anticipate the negative response of an audience, to bring attention to the tensions between the two sides of the argument, and to explain why the audience should change their views.|
|Speeches to Actuate||Persuasive speeches which seek to change or motivate particular behaviors.|
|Speeches to Convince||Persuasive speeches which seek to establish agreement about a particular topic.|
|Status Quo||The current situation.|
|Syllogisms||Reasoning beginning with a major premise, then moving to a minor premise, before establishing a specific claim.|
|Warrant||The (often unstated) connection between data and claim.|
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p. 1 Judi Chamberlin by Tom Olin http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Judi_Chamberlin_2000_From_Privileges_to_Rights.jpg
p. 2 NASUWT officer speaking by Sam Saunders http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/NASUWT _officer_speaking_at_Bristol_public_sector_pensions_rally_in_ November_2011.jpg
p. 2 Air Pollution by US Environmental Protection Agency http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AirPollutionSource.jpg p. 3 California Traffic by Downtowngal http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Interstate _10_looking_east_from_Crenshaw_Boulevard.jpg
p. 4 McLaren F1 by Jagvar http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/53/MclarenF 1.JPG
p. 4 USPS mailboxes by Erasergirl http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:USPS_mailboxes.jpg
p. 5 Jade Raymond by Gamescore Blog http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jade_Raymond_-_E3_2007_2.jpg
p. 5 Audience member at USO show by .S. Air Force Master Sgt. Adam M. Stump http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Defense.gov_photo_essay_081112-F-6684S-757.jpg
p. 6 Children at play by Nils Fretwurst http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Children_play_in_push_car.jpg
p. 6 Credit cards by Lotus Head http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/Credit- cards.jpg
p. 7 Danny Shine by Acapeloahddub http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Danny_Shine_Speaker %27s_Corner.JPG
p. 8 Dining booth by Wayne Truong http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dining_Booth.jpg
p. 9 Deepwater Horizon fire by US Coast Guard http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/Deepwater_Horizon_fire_2010-04-21.jpg
p. 9 Nancy Brinker by Nancy Brinker http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nancy_Brinker.jpg
p. 10 Speaker’s Corner speaker by Deborah MacLean http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Speakers-Corner- Speaker-1987.jpg
p. 12 Roman Rackwitz by Romrack http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_Rackwitz_Pres entation.jpg
p. 13 Jeanette Chong-Aruldoss by Terence Lee http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jeanette_Chong-Aruldoss_at_a_Reform_Party_rally,_Speakers%27_Corner,_Singapore_-_20110115.jpg
p. 14 Bonnie Franklin by Pattymooney http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Actress_Bonnie_Franklin_Speaks_at_March_For_Women%27s_Lives_2004.jpg
p. 14 Martin_Kingham by pfctdayelise http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Martin_Kingham,_CF MEU.JPG