Glossary and References


Attitude An attitude is a learned disposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a person, an object, an idea, or an event.
Audience Analysis A speaker analyzes an audience for demographics, dispositions and knowledge of the topic.
Beliefs Beliefs are principles and are more durable than attitudes because beliefs are hinged to ideals and not issues.
Cognitive Dissonance The psychological discomfort felt when a person is presented with two competing ideas or pieces of evidence.
Demographics Demographics are the most recent statistical characteristics of a population.
Demographic Characteristics Demographic characteristics are facts about the make-up of a population.
Demography Demographics are literally a classification of the characteristics of the people.
Inference Making an inference is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.
Ordered category An ordered category is a condition of logical or comprehensible arrangement among the separate elements of a group.
Paradigm A paradigm is a pattern that describes distinct concepts or thoughts in any scientific discipline or other epistemological context.
Psychological Description A psychological description is a description of the audience’s attitudes, beliefs, and values.
Quantitative Analysis A quantitative analysis is the process of determining the value of a variable by examining its numerical, measurable characteristics.
Statistics Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data.
Unacquainted-Audience Presentation An unacquainted-audience presentation is a speech when you are completely unaware of your audience’s characteristics.
Uniqueness Uniqueness occurs when a topic rises to the level of being exceptional in interest and knowledge to a given audience.
Variable A variable is a characteristic of a unit being observed that may assume more than one of a set of values to which a numerical measure or a category from a classification can be assigned.
Value A value is a guiding belief that regulates our attitudes.
Value Hierarchy A value hierarchy is a person’s value structure placed in relationship to a given value set.


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Benjamin, B. (1969). Demographic analysis. New York: Praeger.

Caernarven-Smith, P. (1983). Audience analysis & response (1st Ed.). Pembroke, MA: Firman Technical Publications.

Campbell, K.K. & Huxman, S.S. The Rhetorical Act: Thinking, Speaking, and Writing Critically (3rd Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Clevenger, T. (1966). Audience analysis. Indianapolis: Bobbs- Merrill.

Dwyer, K.K. (2005) Conquer your speech anxiety: Second Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Eisenberg, I. & Wynn, D. (2013) Think communication.

Boston: Pearson. Gamble, T.K. & Gamble, M. (2013). Communication works. New York: McGraw- Hill.

Jastrow, J. (1918). The psychology of conviction: A study of beliefs and attitudes. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Klopf, D.W. & Cambra, R.E. (1991) Speaking skills for prospective teachers (2nd Ed.). Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company.

Lakein, A. (1989) How to get control of your time and your life. New York: Signet.

Lewis, D. (1989) The secret language of success. New York: Galahad Books.

McQuail, D. (1997). Audience analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Natalle, E.J. & Bodenheimer, F.R. (2004) The woman’s public speaking handbook. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Nierenberg, G.I. & Calero, H.H. (1994) How to read a person like a book. New York: Barnes and Noble Books.

Pearson, J.C., Nelson, P.E., Titsworth, S. & Harter, L. (2011). Human communication (4th Ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Pressat, R. (1972). Demographic analysis; methods, results, applications. Chicago: Aldine- Atherton.

Rokeach, M. (1968). Beliefs, attitudes, and values; a theory of organization and change (1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Tauber, R.T. & Mester, C.S. Acting Lessons for Teachers, Using Performance Skills in the Classroom. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Ting-Toomey. S & Chung, L.C. (2005). Understanding intercultural communication. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing.

Tucker, K.T.; Weaver, II, R.L.; Berryman-Fink, C. (1981). Research in speech communication. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

photo credits

p. 1 Audience at RZA book reading By David Shankbone

p. 3 Mobile HCI 2008 Audience 2008_Audience.jpg By Nhenze

p. 6 Speakers at Wiki Conference 2011 rence_2011.JPG By Sucheta Ghoshal

p. 9 Audience enjoys Stallman’s jokes By Damian Buonamico

p. 9 Side shot audience d/4747176345/ By U.S. Embassy New Zealand