|Analogy||A figure of speech that essentially compares something that your audience knows and understands with something new and different.|
|Preview||Sometimes called a road map, a preview is a brief oral outline in which the speaker clearly and concisely states the main points of the speech.|
|Internal Credibility||This is a form of credibility based on attributes that are largely controlled by a speaker, such as appearance, confidence, charisma, trustworthiness, and speaking ability.|
|Expectancy Violation||Expectancy violations occur when people engage in behavior that is unexpected or inappropriate for the situation.|
|External Credibility||This is a form of credibility based on attributes that a speaker can “borrow,” such as using credible sources and referring to credible and popular people and events.|
|Primacy Effect||According to this principle, audiences are likely to remember what they hear or read first.|
|Recency Effect||According to this principle, audiences are likely to remember what they hear or read last.|
|Rhetorical Question||When a speaker asks a question that is not meant to be answered outloud, or a question for which the audience already knows the answer. This is often used as a way to get an audience to think about the topic.|
|Thesis||One sentence or statement that succinctly and accurately lets the audience know what the speech will be about and what the speaker plans to accomplish in the speech.|
Aristotle (1982). The art of rhetoric. (J.H. Freese, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bitzer, L. (1968). The rhetorical situation. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 1, 1-14.
Bono. (2006, February 2). Keynote address at the 54th national prayer breakfast. Speech posted at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/bononationalprayerbreakfast.htm
Burgoon, J. K. & and Hale, J. L. (1988). Nonverbal expectancy violations: Model elaboration and application to immediacy behaviors. Communication Monographs, 55, (1), 58-79.
Flora, C. (May-June 2004). The once- over you can trust: First impressions. Psychology Today, 37 (3), 60-64.
Fisher, W. (1987). Human communication as narration: Toward a philosophy of reason, value, and action. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
Garlick, R. (1993). Verbal descriptions, communicative encounters and impressions. Communication Quarterly, 41, 394-404.
Glaser, E. (1992, July 14). 1992 Democratic national convention address. Speech posted at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/elizabethglaser1992dnc.htm
Johnson, L. (1964, May 22). The great society. Speech posted at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/lbjthegreatsociety.htm
Kennedy, T. (1980, August 12). 1980 democratic national convention address. Speech posted at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/tedkennedy1980dnc.htm
King, Jr., M. L. (1963, August 28). I have a dream.” Speech posted at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm
Lehrer, J. (Interviewer) & Stockdale, J. (Interviewee). (1999). Debating our Destiny: Admiral James Stockdale. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/spc/debatingourdestiny/interviews/stockdale.html
Lincoln. A. (1863, November 19). The Gettysburg address. Speech posted at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/gettysburgaddress.htm
Reagan, R. (1989, January 11). Farewell address to the nation. Speech posted at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/ronaldreaganfarewelladdress.html
Richards, A. (1998, July 19). Democratic national convention keynote address. Speech posted at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/annrichards1988dnc.htm
Schenck v. United States, 249 US 47 (1919).
Stockdale, J. (1992, October 19). The 1992 vice presidential debate. Speech posted at http://www.debates.org/index.php?page=october-13-1992-debate-transcript
Townsend, C. (2007, February 5). Spring break in Mexico. Speech posted at http://msustr0.campus.mnsu.edu:8080/cah/gorgias/333/MMS/Cassie.wmv
p. 1 Muhammad Yunnus by schipulites http://s3.amazonaws.com/estock/fspid9/1 9/21/48/0/hwac-grameenbank-author-1921480-o.jpg
p. 2 Pueblo Bonito Emerald Bay, Mazatlan by bryce_edwards http://www.everystockphoto.com/photo.php?imageId=3834933&searchId=d2b527 e266d9adaf3b9eb5ba28008afc&npos=11
p. 4 Abraham Lincoln by U.S. Library of Congress http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Abraham_Lincoln_head_on_shoulders_photo_portrait.jpg
p. 4 Bono at the National Prayer Breakfast by Paul Morse http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:National_prayer_breakfast_2006.jpg
p. 5 Kelly McCann by schipulites http://www.everystockphoto.com/photo.php?imageId=2101671&searchId=117192ced800c1f4d61c5a6c55f6ee64&npos=4
p. 5 Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes by National Photo Company http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Justice_Oliver_Wendell_Holmes_standing.jpg
p. 6 President Ronald Reagan by White House Photographic Office http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Reagan_farewell_salute.jpg
p. 7 Laughing Audience by Damian Buonamico http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Audience_enjoy_Stallman%27s_jokes.jpg
p. 7 Governor Ann Richards by Kenneth Zirkel http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ann_Richards.jpg
p. 8 Ed Miliband by net_efekt http://www.everystockphoto.com/photo.php?imageId=2282400&searchId=d1715ef c5a67ac1c988152b8136e3dfa&npos=37
p. 8 Woman with Laptop by Matthew Bowden http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: Woman-typing-on-laptop.jpg
p. 9 LBJ at the University of Michigan Commencement by LBJ Library and Museum http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:LBJ_at_the_University_of_Michigan.jpg
p. 10 President Johnson’s Poverty Tour 1964 by Cecil Saughton http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:225-9-wh64_small.jpg
p. 10 Woman speaks at BP Oil Flood Protest New Orleans by Derek Bridges http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BP_Oil_Flood_Protest_in_New_Orleans_30.jpg
p. 11 Martin Luther King March on Washington by National Archives and Records Administration http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Martin_Luther_King_-_March_on_Washington.jpg
p. 11 Kyung-wha Khang Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights by U.S. Mission Geneva http://www.everystockphoto.com/photo.php?imageId=7527423&searchId=488e81758eb12a809a21e316d0f1ab1b&npos=205
* All other photos from Microsoft Clipart