|Activity||The use of action words, physical or visual movement, or faster rate of speech to draw the audience’s attention.|
|Attention Getter||A device or technique used to gain the audience’s attention in the introduction or keep the audience’s attention during the course of a speech.|
|Contrast||An attention getting technique whereby supporting ideas are compared to emphasize difference.|
|Credibility||Refers to the audience’s perception of the speaker’s expertise, authenticity, and trustworthiness.|
|Definitional Speech||A type of speech in which the speaker attempts to explain or identify the essential qualities or components of concepts, theories, philosophies, or issues.|
|Demonstration Speech||A speech that shows listeners how some process is accomplished or how to perform it themselves.|
|Descriptive Speech||A speech that provides a detailed, vivid, word picture of a person, animal, place, or object.|
|Explanatory Speech||Also known as a briefing, the focus of this speech is on reports of current and historical events, customs, transformations, inventions, policies, outcomes, and options.|
|General Purpose||The speaker’s overall goal, objective, or intent: to inform, to persuade, or to entertain.|
|Humor||The use of amusing or comical facts, stories, or forms of expression to maintain an audience’s attention.|
|Information Overload||An overwhelming feeling of being faced with so much information one cannot completely process it.|
|Informative Speech||A speech in which the primary purpose is to provide the audience with information that they did not already know, or to teach them more about a topic with which they are already familiar.|
|Intensity||Supporting material that is characterized by a high degree of emotion, color, volume, strength, or other defining characteristic.|
|Novelty||Very recent or unusual supporting ideas.|
|WIIFM||An acronym that stands for “What’s in it for me?” This is the question that listeners ask themselves when they begin to listen to a speech. Listeners want to know; What does this speech have to do with my life? Is this information useful to me? Is the speaker talking about something I already know? Is the subject interesting? Why should I pay attention?|
Beebe, S. A., & Beebe, S. J. (1991). Public speaking: An audience-centered approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Brydon, S. R., & Scott, M. D. (2006). Between one and many: The art and science of public speaking, (5th ed). Boston: McGraw Hill.
Carlson, T. (2005). The how of wow: A guide to giving a speech that will positively blow ’em away. New York: American Management Association.
Cassidy, S. (2011). The Taj Mahal: The most beautiful building in the world. Retrieved from http://www.epinions.com/review/trvlDest-Asia-IndiaAgra_and_the_Taj_Mahal/content_7472 7001732
Craughwell, T. J. (2000). The baby on the car roof: And 222 more urban legends. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers.
U. S. Department of Defense. (2006). Army field manual FM 21-76, survival, evasion and recovery. Retrieved from http://www.survivalebooks.com/survivalf m3-0570.html
Devito, J. A. (1981). The elements of public speaking. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers.
Fischer, S. R. (2006). The island at the end of the world. London, UK: Reaktion Books.
Fleming, N. D. (2001). Teaching and learning styles: VARK strategies. Christchurch, New Zealand: N.D. Fleming.
Flora, C. (2009, NovemberDecember). Everyday creativity. Psychology Today, 62–73.
Fujishin, R. (2000). The natural speaker. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
George, A. (2011, July 20). Designing a mushroom death suit. New Scientist. Retrieved from http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/cultu relab/2011/07/designing-a-mushroomdeath-suit.html?DCMP=OTCrss&nsref=online-news
Gladis, S. (1999). The manager’s pocket guide to public presentations. Amherst, MA: HRD Press.
Hanks, K. & Parry, J. (1991). Wake up your creative genius. Menlo Park, CA: Crisp Publications.
Harlan, R. (1993). The confident speaker: How to master fear and persuade an audience. Bradenton, FL: McGuinn & McGuire Publishing.
Hawk, T. F. & Shah, A. J. (2007). Using learning style instruments to enhance student learning. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 5 (1),1–19.
Hughes, D., & Phillips, B. (2000). The Oxford Union guide to successful public speaking. London: Virgin Books Ltd.
Jaffe, C. (1998). Public speaking: Concepts and skills for a diverse society (2nd Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Lucas, S. E. (2007). The art of public speaking (9th Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
MacInnis, J. L. (2006). The elements of great public speaking: How to be calm, confident, and compelling. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.
Maxey, C., & O’Connor, K. E. (2006). Present like a pro: The field guide to mastering the art of business, professional, and public speaking. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
McKerrow, R. E., Gronbeck, B. E., Ehninger, D., & Monroe, A. H. (2000). Principles and types of speech communication (14th Ed.). New York: Longman.
Morreale, S. P., & Bovee, C. L. (1998). Excellence in public speaking. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
National Geographic. (2006). Tsunami: Killer wave [Motion Picture].
Noonan, P. (1998). Simply speaking: How to communicate your ideas with style, substance, and clarity. New York: Regan Books.
Osborn, M., & Osborn, S. (1991). Public Speaking, (2nd ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Peterson, B. D., Stephan, E. G., & White, N. D. (1992). The complete speaker: An introduction to public speaking, (3rd ed). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Pincus, M. (2006). Boost your presentation IQ. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Reynolds, G. (2008). Presentation Zen: Simple ideas on presentation design and delivery. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.
Rinehart, S. M. (2002). Giving academic presentations. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
Slutsky, J., & Aun, M. (1997). The Toastmasters International guide to successful speaking. Chicago: Dearborn Financial Publishing, Inc.
Sprague, J., & Stuart, D. (1984). The speaker’s handbook. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers.
Thompson, M. (1999). Eastern philosophy. Chicago: Hodder & Stoughton, Ltd.
Ulloth, D., & Alderfer, R. (1998a). Public speaking: An experiential approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Ulloth, D., & Alderfer, R. (1998b). Student workbook for public speaking: An experiential approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Urech, E. (1998). Speaking globally: Effective presentations across international and cultural boundaries. Dover, NH: Kogan Page Limited.
Verderber, R. F. (1994). The challenge of effective speaking, (9th Ed.). Bemont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Walters, L. (1995). What to say when: A complete resource for speakers, trainers, and executives. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc.
Westerfield, J. (2002). I have to give a presentation, now what? New York: Silver Lining Books.
Wilbur, L. P. (2000). Holding audience attention: How to speak with confidence, substance and power. Colorado Springs, CO: Piccadilly Books, Ltd.
P. 3 Aztec Speaker by Orin Zebest http://www.flickr.com/photos/orinrobertjohn/ 1796533234/
P. 12 Beauty Undressed by Shannon Cutts http://www.flickr.com/photos/40940503@N0 5/4982554199/in/photostream/ http://www.key-to-life.com/programs