What comes to mind when you think about therapy for psychological problems? You might picture someone lying on a couch talking about his childhood while the therapist sits and takes notes, à la Sigmund Freud. But can you envision a therapy session in which someone is wearing virtual reality headgear to conquer a fear of snakes?
In this chapter, you will see that approaches to therapy include both psychological and biological interventions, all with the goal of alleviating distress. Because psychological problems can originate from various sources—biology, genetics, childhood experiences, conditioning, and sociocultural influences—psychologists have developed many different therapeutic techniques and approaches. For example, some psychologists believe that psychotherapy should involve a close personal relationship between therapist and client, while others believe their main responsibility is to help the patient change behavior. The Ocean Therapy program shown in [link] uses multiple approaches to support the mental health of veterans in the group.
Abbass, A., Kisely, S., & Kroenke, K. (2006). Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy for somatic disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78, 265–274.
Ahmed, S., Wilson, K. B., Henriksen, R. C., & Jones, J. W. (2011). What does it mean to be a culturally competent counselor? Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 3(1), 17–28.
Alavi, A., Sharifi, B., Ghanizadeh, A., & Dehbozorgi, G. (2013). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in decreasing suicidal ideation and hopelessness of the adolescents with previous suicidal attempts. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, 23(4), 467–472.
Alegría, M., Chatterji, P., Wells, K., Cao, Z., Chen, C. N., Takeuchi, D., . . . Meng, X. L. (2008). Disparity in depression treatment among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Psychiatric Services, 59(11), 1264–1272.
American Psychological Association. (2005). Policy statement on evidence-based practice in psychology. Retrieved from http://www.apapracticecentral.org/ce/courses/ebpstatement.pdf
American Psychological Association. (2014). Can psychologists prescribe medications for their patients? Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2004/05/louisiana-rx.aspx
American Psychological Association. (2014). Psychotherapy: Understanding group therapy. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/group-therapy.aspx
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy. (n.d.). History of cognitive therapy. Retrieved from http://www.beckinstitute.org/history-of-cbt/
Beck, J. S. (2011). Cognitive behavior therapy: Basics and beyond (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Belgrave, F., & Allison, K. (2010). African-American psychology: From Africa to America (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Bertrand, K., Richer, I., Brunelle, N., Beaudoin, I., Lemieux, A., & Ménard, J-M. (2013). Substance abuse treatment for adolescents: How are family factors related to substance use change? Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45(1), 28–38.
Blank, M. B., Mahmood, M., Fox, J. C., & Guterbock, T. (2002). Alternative mental health services: The role of the black church in the South. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1668–1672.
Blumberg, J. (2007, October 24). A brief history of the Salem witch trials. Smithsonian.com. Retrieved from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/brief-salem.html?c=y&page=2
Butlera, A. C., Chapmanb, J. E., Formanc, E. M., & Becka, A. T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26,17–31.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2005). Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 41. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 05-3991. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Suicide prevention: Youth suicide. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pub/youth_suicide.html
Chambless, D. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (2001). Empirically supported psychological interventions: Controversies and evidence. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 685–716.
Charman, D., & Barkham, M. (2005). Psychological treatments: Evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence. InPsych Highlights. Retrieved from www.psychology.org.au/publications/inpsych/treatments
Chorpita, B. F., Daleiden, E. L., Ebesutani, C., Young, J., Becker, K. D., Nakamura, B. J., . . . Starace, N. (2011), Evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents: An updated review of indicators of efficacy and effectiveness. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 18, 154–172.
Clement, S., Schauman, O., Graham, T., Maggioni, F., Evans-Lacko, S., Bezborodovs, N., . . . Thornicroft, G. (2014, February 25). What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychological Medicine, l–17.
Daniel, D. (n.d.). Rational emotive in behavior therapy the context of modern psychlogical research. Retrieved from albertellis.org/rebt-in-the-context-of-modern-psychological-research
Davidson, W. S. (1974). Studies of aversive conditioning for alcoholics: A critical review of theory and research methodology. Psychological Bulletin, 81(9), 571–581.
DeRubeis, R. J., Hollon, S. D., Amsterdam, J. D., Shelton, R. C., Young, P. R., Salomon, R. M., . . . Gallop, R. (2005). Cognitive Therapy vs medications in the treatment of moderate to severe depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(4), 409–416.
DeYoung, S. H. (2013, November 14). The woman who raised that monster [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/suzy-hayman-deyoung/the-woman-who-raised-that_b_4266621.html
Dickerson, F. B., Tenhula, W. N., & Green-Paden, L. D. (2005). The token economy for schizophrenia: Review of the literature and recommendations for future research. Schizophrenia Research, 75(2), 405–416.
Donahue, A. B. (2000). Electroconvulsive therapy and memory loss: A personal journey. The Journal of ECT, 162, 133–143.
Elkins, R. L. (1991). An appraisal of chemical aversion (emetic therapy) approaches to alcoholism treatment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 29(5), 387–413.
Gary, F. A. (2005). Stigma: Barrier to mental health care among ethnic minorities. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 26(10), 979–999.
Gerardi, M., Cukor, J., Difede, J., Rizzo, A., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2010). Virtual reality exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports, 12(298), 299–305.
Harter, S. (1977). A cognitive-developmental approach to children’s expression of conflicting feelings and a technique to facilitate such expression in play therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45(3), 417–432.
Hemphill, R. E. (1966). Historical witchcraft and psychiatric illness in Western Europe. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 59(9), 891–902.
Ivey, S. L., Scheffler, R., & Zazzali, J. L. (1998). Supply dynamics of the mental health workforce: Implications for health policy. Milbank Quarterly, 76(1), 25–58.
Jang, Y., Chiriboga, D. A., & Okazaki, S. (2009). Attitudes toward mental health services: Age group differences in Korean American adults. Aging & Mental Health, 13(1), 127–134.
Jones, M. C. (1924). A laboratory study of fear: The case of Peter. Pedagogical Seminary, 31, 308–315.
Kalff, D. M. (1991). Introduction to sandplay therapy. Journal of Sandplay Therapy, 1(1), 9.
Leblanc, M., & Ritchie, M. (2001). A meta-analysis of play therapy outcomes. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 14(2), 149–163.
Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 55, 3–9.
Lovaas, O. I. (2003). Teaching individuals with developmental delays: Basic intervention techniques. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Lowinger, R. J., & Rombom, H. (2012). The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD in New York City Transit Workers. North American Journal of Psychology, 14(3), 471–484.
Madanes, C. (1991). Strategic family therapy. In A. S. Gurman and D. P. Kniskern (Eds.), Handbook of Family Therapy, Vol. 2. (pp. 396–416). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.
Marques, L., Alegría, M., Becker, A. E., Chen, C. N., Fang, A., Chosak, A., & Diniz, J. B. (2011). Comparative prevalence, correlates of impairment, and service utilization for eating disorders across US ethnic groups: Implications for reducing ethnic disparities in health care access for eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44(5), 412–420.
Martin, B. (2007). In-Depth: Cognitive behavioral therapy. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/000907
Mayo Clinic. (2012). Tests and procedures: Transcranial magnetic stimulation. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation/basics/definition/PRC-20020555
McGovern, M. P., & Carroll, K. M. (2003). Evidence-based practices for substance use disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 26, 991–1010.
McGrath, R. J., Cumming, G. F., Burchard, B. L., Zeoli, S., & Ellerby, L. (2009). Current practices and emerging trends in sexual abuser management: The safer society North American survey. Brandon, VT: The SaferSociety Press.
McLellan, A. T., Lewis, D. C., O’Brien, C. P., & Kleber, H. D. (2000). Drug dependence, a chronic medical illness: Implications for treatment, insurance, and outcomes evaluation. JAMA, 284(13), 1689–1695.
Minuchin, P. (1985). Families and individual development: Provocations from the field of family therapy. Child Development, 56(2), 289–302.
Mullen, E. J., & Streiner, D. L. (2004). The evidence for and against evidence-based practice. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 4(2), 111–121.
Muñoz-Cuevas, F. J., Athilingam, J., Piscopo, D., & Wilbrecht, L. (2013). Cocaine-induced structural plasticity in frontal cortex correlates with conditioned place preference. Nature Neuroscience, 16, 1367–1369.
National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists. (2009). History of cognitive behavioral therapy. Retrieved from: http://nacbt.org/historyofcbt.htm.
National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.-a) Any disorder among children. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/1ANYDIS_CHILD.shtml
National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.-b) Use of mental health services and treatment among adults. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/3use_mt_adult.shtml
National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.-c). Use of mental health services and treatment among children. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/1NHANES.shtml
National Institutes of Health. (2013, August 6). Important events in NIMH history. Retrieved from http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/NIMH.htm
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2008). Addiction science: From Molecules to managed care. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/addiction-science/relapse
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2011). Drug facts: Comorbidity: Addiction and other mental disorders. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/comorbidity-addiction-other-mental-disorders
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2012). Principles of drug addiction treatment: A research-based guide (3rd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction-treatment-research-based-guide-third-edition/principles-effective-treatment
Nelson, P. (1993). Autobiography in Five Short Chapters. In There’s a Hole in my Sidewalk: The Romance of Self-Discovery. Hillsboro, OR: Beyond Words Publishing.
O’Connor, K. J. (2000). The play therapy primer (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
Page, R. C., & Berkow, D. N. (1994). Unstructured group therapy: Creating contact, choosing relationship. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
Pagnin, D., de Queiroz, V., Pini, S., & Cassano, G. B. (2004). Efficacy of ECT in depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of ECT, 20, 13–20.
Prins, S. J., & Draper, L. (2009). Improving outcomes for people with mental illnesses under community corrections supervision: A guide to research-informed policy and practice. New York, NY: Council of State Governments Justice Center.
Prochaska, J. O., & Norcross, J. C. (2010). Systems of psychotherapy (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Prudic, J., Peyser, S., & Sackeim, H. A. (2000). Subjective memory complaints: A review of patient self-assessment of memory after electroconvulsive therapy. The Journal of ECT, 16(2), 121–132.
Rathus, J. H., & Sanderson, W. C. (1999). Marital distress: Cognitive behavioral treatments for couples. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Reti, I. R. (n.d.). Electroconvulsive therapy today. Retrieved from Johns Hopkins Medicine: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/psychiatry/specialty_areas/brain_stimulation/docs/DepBulletin407_ECT_extract.pdf
Richman, L. S., Kohn-Wood, L. P., & Williams, D. R. (2007). The role of discrimination and racial identity for mental health service utilization. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26(8), 960–981.
Rizzo, A., Newman, B., Parsons, T., Difede, J., Reger, G., Holloway, K., . . . Bordnick, P. (2010). Development and clinical results from the Virtual Iraq exposure therapy application for PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1208, 114–125.
Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered psychotherapy. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.
Sackett, D. L., & Rosenberg, W. M. (1995). On the need for evidence-based medicine. Journal of Public Health, 17, 330–334.
Sallows, G. O., & Graupner, T. D. (2005). Intensive behavioral treatment for children with autism: Four-year outcome and predictors. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 110(6), 417–438.
Scott, L. D., McCoy, H., Munson, M. R., Snowden, L. R., & McMillen, J. C. (2011). Cultural mistrust of mental health professionals among Black males transitioning from foster care. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 605–613.
Shechtman, Z. (2002). Child group psychotherapy in the school at the threshold of a new millennium. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(3), 293–299.
Shedler, J. (2010). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 65, 98–109.
Simpson D. D. (1981). Treatment for drug abuse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 875–880.
Simpson D. D, Joe, G. W, & Bracy, S. A. (1982). Six-year follow-up of opioid addicts after admission to treatment. Archives General Psychiatry, 39, 1318–1323.
Snowden, L. R. (2001). Barriers to effective mental health services for African Americans. Mental Health Services Research, 3, 181–187.
Stensland, M., Watson, P. R., & Grazier, K. L. (2012). An examination of costs, charges, and payments for inpatient psychiatric treatment in community hospitals. Psychiatric Services, 63(7), 66–71.
Stewart, S. M., Simmons, A., & Habibpour, E. (2012). Treatment of culturally diverse children and adolescents with depression. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 22(1), 72–79.
Streeton, C., & Whelan, G. (2001). Naltrexone, a relapse prevention maintenance treatment of alcohol dependence: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 36(6), 544–552.
Sue, D. W. (2001). Multidimensional facets of cultural competence. Counseling Psychologist, 29(6), 790–821.
Sue, D. W. (2004). Multicultural counseling and therapy (MCT). In J. A. Banks and C. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (2nd ed., pp. 813–827). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2007). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice (5th ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
Sussman, L. K., Robins, L. N., & Earls, F. (1987). Treatment–seeking for depression by Black and White Americans. Social Science & Medicine, 24, 187–196.
Szasz, T. S. (1960). The Myth of Mental Illness. American Psychologist, 15, 113–118.
Thomas, K. C., & Snowden, L. R. (2002). Minority response to health insurance coverage for mental health services. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 4, 35–41.
Tiffany, F. (2012/1891). Life of Dorothea Lynde Dix (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin.
Torrey, E. F. (1997). Out of the shadows: Confronting America’s mental illness crisis. New York, NY: Wiley.
Torrey, E. F., Zdanowicz, M. T., Kennard, A. D., Lamb, H. R., Eslinger, D. F., Biasotti, M. C., & Fuller, D. A. (2014, April 8). The treatment of persons with mental illness in prisons and jails: A state survey. Arlington, VA: Treatment Advocacy Center. Retrieved from http://tacreports.org/storage/documents/treatment-behind-bars/treatment-behind-bars.pdf
Townes D. L., Cunningham N. J., & Chavez-Korell, S. (2009). Reexaming the relationships between racial identity, cultural mistrust, help-seeking attitudes, and preference for a Black counselor. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(2), 330–336.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2013, December 10). USDA announces support for mental health facilities in rural areas [Press release No. 0234.13]. Retrieved from http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?contentid=2013/12/0234.xml
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Office of Rural Health Policy. (2005). Mental health and rural America: 1984-2005. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.hrsa.gov/ruralhealth/RuralMentalHealth.pdf
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2013, December). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Mental Health Findings (NSDUH Series H-47, HHS Publication No. [SMA] 13-4805). Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k12MH_FindingsandDetTables/2K12MHF/NSDUHmhfr2012.htm
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2011, September). Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings (NSDUH Series H-41, HHS Publication No. [SMA] 11-4658). Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10ResultsRev/NSDUHresultsRev2010.htm
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2013, September). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings (NSDUH Series H-46, HHS Publication No. [SMA] 13-4795). Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/NationalFindings/NSDUHresults2012.htm#ch2.2
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Community Planning and Development. (2011). The 2010 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress. Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.hudhre.info/documents/2010HomelessAssessmentReport.pdf
U.S. Department of Labor. (n.d.). Mental health parity. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/ebsa/mentalhealthparity/
U.S. Public Health Service. (2000). Report of the Surgeon General’s conference on children’s mental health: A national action agenda. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services.
Wagenfeld, M. O., Murray, J. D., Mohatt, D. F., & DeBruiynb, J. C. (Eds.). (1994). Mental health and rural America: 1980–1993 (NIH Publication No. 94-3500). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Wampold, B. E. (2007). Psychotherapy: The humanistic (and effective) treatment. American Psychologist, 62, 857–873. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.8.857
Weil, E. (2012, March 2). Does couples therapy work? The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/04/fashion/couples-therapists-confront-the-stresses-of-their-field.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Weiss, R. D., Jaffee, W. B., de Menil, V. P., & Cogley, C. B. (2004). Group therapy for substance abuse disorders: What do we know? Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12(6), 339–350.
Willard Psychiatric Center. (2009). Echoes of Willard. Retrieved from http://www.echoesofwillard.com/willard-psychiatric-centre/
Wolf, M., & Risley, T. (1967). Application of operant conditioning procedures to the behavior problems of an autistic child: A follow-up and extension. Behavior Research and Therapy, 5(2), 103–111.
Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.