## Key Concepts

• Linear functions may be graphed by plotting points or by using the y-intercept and slope.
• Graphs of linear functions may be transformed by shifting the graph up, down, left, or right as well as using stretches, compressions, and reflections.
• The y-intercept and slope of a line may be used to write the equation of a line.
• The x-intercept is the point at which the graph of a linear function crosses the x-axis.
• Horizontal lines are written in the form, $f(x)=b$.
• Vertical lines are written in the form, $x=b$.
• Parallel lines have the same slope.
• Perpendicular lines have negative reciprocal slopes, assuming neither is vertical.
• A line parallel to another line, passing through a given point, may be found by substituting the slope value of the line and the x– and y-values of the given point into the equation $f\left(x\right)=mx+b$ and using the b that results. Similarly, point-slope form of an equation can also be used.
• A line perpendicular to another line, passing through a given point, may be found in the same manner, with the exception of using the negative reciprocal slope.
• The absolute value function is commonly used to measure distances between points.
• Applied problems, such as ranges of possible values, can also be solved using the absolute value function.
• The graph of the absolute value function resembles the letter V. It has a corner point at which the graph changes direction.
• In an absolute value equation, an unknown variable is the input of an absolute value function.
• If the absolute value of an expression is set equal to a positive number, expect two solutions for the unknown variable.
• An absolute value equation may have one solution, two solutions, or no solutions.
• An absolute value inequality is similar to an absolute value equation but takes the form $|A|<B,|A|\le B,|A|>B,\text{ or }|A|\ge B$. It can be solved by determining the boundaries of the solution set and then testing which segments are in the set.
• Absolute value inequalities can also be solved graphically.

## Glossary

absolute value equation
an equation of the form $|A|=B$, with $B\ge 0$; it will have solutions when $A=B$ or $-A=B$
absolute value inequality
a relationship in the form $|{ A }|<{ B },|{ A }|\le { B },|{ A }|>{ B },\text{or }|{ A }|\ge{ B }$
horizontal line
a line defined by $f\left(x\right)=b$ where b is a real number. The slope of a horizontal line is 0.
parallel lines
two or more lines with the same slope
perpendicular lines
two lines that intersect at right angles and have slopes that are negative reciprocals of each other
vertical line
a line defined by $x=a$ where a is a real number. The slope of a vertical line is undefined.
x-intercept
the point on the graph of a linear function when the output value is 0; the point at which the graph crosses the horizontal axis