Introduction to Logic Basics

In this section, we will learn how to construct logical statements. We will later combine our knowledge of sets with what we will learn about constructing logical statements to analyze arguments with logic.

Logic is a systematic way of thinking that allows us to deduce new information from old information and to parse the meanings of sentences. You use logic informally in everyday life and certainly also in doing mathematics. For example, suppose you are working with a certain circle, call it “Circle X,” and you have available the following two pieces of information.

  1. Circle X has radius equal to 3.
  2. If any circle has radius [latex]r[/latex], then its area is [latex]\pi{r}^{2}[/latex] square units.

You have no trouble putting these two facts together to get:

  1. Circle X has area [latex]9\pi[/latex] square units.

You are using logic to combine existing information to produce new information. Since a major objective in mathematics is to deduce new information, logic must play a fundamental role. This chapter is intended to give you a sufficient mastery of logic.