- Identify ways energy sources impact the biotic factors of biogeography
Energy from the sun is captured by green plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and photosynthetic protists. These organisms convert solar energy into the chemical energy needed by all living things. Light availability can be an important force directly affecting the evolution of adaptations in photosynthesizers. For instance, plants in the understory of a temperate forest are shaded when the trees above them in the canopy completely leaf out in the late spring. Not surprisingly, understory plants have adaptations to successfully capture available light. One such adaptation is the rapid growth of spring ephemeral plants such as the spring beauty (Figure 1). These spring flowers achieve much of their growth and finish their life cycle (reproduce) early in the season before the trees in the canopy develop leaves.
In aquatic ecosystems, the availability of light may be limited because sunlight is absorbed by water, plants, suspended particles, and resident microorganisms. Toward the bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean, there is a zone that light cannot reach. Photosynthesis cannot take place there and, as a result, a number of adaptations have evolved that enable living things to survive without light. For instance, aquatic plants have photosynthetic tissue near the surface of the water; for example, think of the broad, floating leaves of a water lily—water lilies cannot survive without light. In environments such as hydrothermal vents, some bacteria extract energy from inorganic chemicals because there is no light for photosynthesis.
The availability of nutrients in aquatic systems is also an important aspect of energy or photosynthesis. Many organisms sink to the bottom of the ocean when they die in the open water; when this occurs, the energy found in that living organism is sequestered for some time unless ocean upwelling occurs. Ocean upwelling is the rising of deep ocean waters that occurs when prevailing winds blow along surface waters near a coastline (Figure 2). As the wind pushes ocean waters offshore, water from the bottom of the ocean moves up to replace this water. As a result, the nutrients once contained in dead organisms become available for reuse by other living organisms.
In freshwater systems, such as lakes, the recycling of nutrients occurs in response to air temperature and wind changes. The nutrients at the bottom of lakes are recycled twice each year: in the spring and fall turnover. The spring-and-fall turnover are seasonal processes that recycle nutrients and oxygen from the bottom of a freshwater lake to the top of the lake (Figure 3). These turnovers are caused by the formation of a thermocline: layers of water with temperatures that are significantly different from those above and below it.
In wintertime, the surface of lakes found in many northern regions is frozen. However, the water under the ice is slightly warmer, and the water at the bottom of the lake is warmer yet at 4 °C to 5 °C (39.2 °F to 41 °F). Water is densest at about 4 °C; therefore, the deepest water is also the densest. The deepest water is oxygen-poor because the decomposition of organic material at the bottom of the lake uses up available oxygen that cannot be replaced by means of oxygen diffusion into the surface of the water, due to the surface ice layer.
How might turnover in tropical lakes differ from turnover in lakes that exist in temperate regions?
In springtime, air temperatures increase and surface ice melts. When the temperature of the surface water begins to approach 4 °C, the water becomes heavier and sinks to the bottom. The water at the bottom of the lake is then displaced by the heavier and denser surface water and, thus, rises to the top. As that water rises to the top, the sediments and nutrients from the lake bottom are brought along with it. This is called the spring turnover. During the summer months, the lake water stratifies, or forms layers, with the warmest water at the lake surface.
As air temperatures drop in the fall, the temperature of the lake water cools to 4 °C; therefore, this causes fall turnover as the heavy cold water sinks and displaces the water at the bottom. The oxygen-rich water at the surface of the lake then moves to the bottom of the lake, while the nutrients at the bottom of the lake rise to the surface (Figure 3). During the winter, the oxygen at the bottom of the lake is used by decomposers and other organisms requiring oxygen, such as fish. It is important to note, however, that the relative transparency of ice also allows the penetration of the shorter wavelengths of visible light so that photosynthesis, especially by algae can continue.